The issue of drinking water is one of the most important nowadays for most countries, especially for densely populated and developing countries. The main reasons for such situation are population growth; drought; extraction of minerals, in particular oil; the widespread use of chemicals in the farm, etc., which are today that critical "pressure" on nature that prevents it from fully performing water purification from contamination. Therefore, minimizing the negative impact on nature and improving the technology of water purification are the main directions of solving such a global issue.Well-known physical, chemical and physicochemical methods do not always provide new levels of purification, which are required by norms, without the use of additional expensive chemicals for coagulation, deposition, etc.It increases operational costs and produces more volumes of hazardous waste.In addition, international standards require more efficient separation systems than those that are used in full. Nanotechnologies can significantly affect the area of sewage treatment in the near future. Nanotechnologies are aimed at improving existing methods by increasing the efficiency of processes and increasing the reuse of nanomaterials.Nanomaterials are endowed with unique properties such as a large surface-to-volume ratio, high reactivity and sensitivity, self-sampling properties on film substrates, high adsorption, and others.Due to these properties, nanomaterials are effective against various organic and inorganic pollutants, heavy metals, as well as against various harmful microorganisms present in contaminated water.
The article deals with the latest achievements and applications of nanotechnologies for wastewater treatment.The use of various nanomaterials such as nanoparticles of metals, metal oxides, carbon compounds, zeolites, filtration membranes, etc., in nanofiltration, adsorption, separation of organic and inorganic substances and photocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants, including theoretical foundations and mechanisms, have been discussed.
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