The problem of utilization of solid cellulosic wastes of agriculture (straw, cornstarch, sunflower husks, etc.), woodworking, pulp - paper industry (branches, sawdust, crust of trees, sulfite alkali ash), municipal waste, which consist 40-50% of plant biomass , especially from fallen leaves, contaminated with gas-man-made emissions, has become critical in the urban and agricultural sectors.
Fallen leaves vary in chemical composition and differ in the speed of their degradation - mineralization. Fermentolysis of these substrates by cellulolytic enzymes can be used to accelerate mineralization. The method of recycling cellulose waste with using of cellulolytic microorganisms biomass can be promising.
Natural substrates that contain cellulose with different degrees of degradation were selected for research. The composition of the components in the substrates varied in the range of: 15-70% cellulose, 10-85% hemicellulose, 0-70% lignin.
The enriched cultures of aerobic cellulolytic microorganisms (bacteria and fungi) were cultured on a liquid and solid Hutchinson-Clayton medium with the purpose to receive separate colonies of cellulolytic microorganisms from natural substrates.
The searching of producers and the allocation of enriched cultures of aerobic cellulolytic bacteria and fungi with high cellulase activity and the production of enzyme preparations on their basis is an actual task for increasing of composting and bio-utilization.
The received enriched cultures are the initial stage of obtaining pure cultures of microorganisms from natural substrates. The destruction of paper filters was observed in all samples that indicate the presence of cellulolytic microorganisms.
As a result of cultivating biomass, 9 strains of bacteria and 8 strains of fungi that are capable to enzymatically decomposing cellulose are isolated. 2 strains of bacteria and 2 strains of fungi were selected for further experiments. The ability to utilize various sources of carbon nutrition, such as: CMC (carboxymethylcellulose), fallen leaves, sawdust, shavings, crushed filter paper, cotton wool, hay were investigated.
Based on our experimental results and the literature data on the using of CMC as marker for determination of the cellulase activity, we have carried out further screening of active cellulolytic bacteria and fungi on this substrate.
For the preliminary identification of isolated cultures of cellulolytic bacteria and fungi, the detection of their morphological characteristics was made by microscopic preparations.
The accumulation cultures of aerobic cellulolytic microorganisms from cellulosic substrates of natural origin: soils of different origins, fallen leaves and wood differing in degree of natural degradation, were obtained. Separate isolates of cellulolytic bacteria and fungi were isolated and optimization of conditions of their cultivation was carried out.
1. TverdI pobutovI vIdhodi v UkraYinI: potentsIal rozvitku stsenarIYi rozvitku galuzI povodzhennya z tverdimi pobutovimi vIdhodami. - PIdsumkoviy zvIt MIzhnarodnoYi fInansovoYi korporatsIYi (IFC, Grupa SvItovogo banku) - 2018.
2. Gaponenko G. M., Homenko I. O. / Problemi utilIzatsIYi smIttya v UkraYinI // ZbIrnik tez MIzhnarodnoYi nauk.-prakt. konf. studentIv, aspIrantIv I molodih vchenih "YunIst nauki - 2017: sotsIalno-ekonomIchnI ta gumanItarnI aspekti rozvitku suspIlstva" (m. ChernIgIv, 26-27 kvItnya 2017 r.): ChNTU. - ChernIgIv: ChernIg. nats. tehnol. un-t, 2017. - S. 17-18.
3. Skip O. S., Shved O. V., Butsyak V. I. Perspektivyi alternativnosti substratov opavshih listev v vermikultvirovanii // Technological aspect of modern agricultural production and environmental protection/proceedings XIII International scientific-applied conference. daRostim. - Almati Kazak. un-t, 2017. - S. 102-103.
4. Manczarski P. Kompostowanie odpadow komunalnych // Referat na Forum Technologii Ochrony Srodowiska . POLEKO. - 2007, UP - 1-16 s.
5. Paschenko I., Palyuh G., Chervetsova V., Zayarnyuk N., Shved O., NovIkov V. OptimIzatsIya umov kultivuvannya nagromadzhuvalnoYi kulturi tselyulolItichnih mIkroorganIzmIv // MaterIali MIzhnarodn. nauk.- prakt. Internet-konferentsIYi "BIotehnologIya : dosvId, traditsIYi ta InnovatsIYi, prisvyachena 50-ti rIchchu zapochatkuvannya bIotehnologIchnoYi osvIti v UkraYinI (14-15 grudnya 2016). - K: NUHT, 2016. - S. 350-356.
6. Bilay V. I., Bilay T. I., Musich E. G. Transformatsiya tselyulozi gribami. - K.: Nauk. dumka, 1982. - 296 s.
7. Segi Y. Metodyi pochvennoy mikrobiologii. - M.: Kolos, 1983. - 295 s.
8. Skomarovskiy A. A., Markov A. V., Gusakov A. V. i dr. Novyie tsellyulazyi dlya vyisokoeffektivnogo gidroliza lignotsellyuloznoy biomassyi // Prikl. biohim. mik robiol. - 2006. - T. 42, № 6. - S. 674-680.
9. Danilyak N. I., Semichevskiy V. D., Dudchenko L. G., Trutneva I. A. Fermentnyie sistemyi vyisshih bazidomitsetov. - K.: Nauka, 1989. - 280 s.
10. Sinitsyin A. P., Chernoglazov V. M., Gusakov A. V. Metodyi izucheniya i svoystva tsellyulozoliticheskih fermentov // Itogi nauki i tehniki. Ser. Biotehnologiya - 1993. - T. 25. - 152 s.
11. Sinitsyin A. P., Gusakov A. V., Chernoglazov V. M. Biokonversiya lignotsellyuloznyih materialov: ucheb. posobie. - M. : Izd-vo MGU, 1995. - 224 s.
12. Patika V. P., Kopilov E. P., Skulovato O. V. TselyulozolItichna aktivnIst gruntovogo griba Chaetomium globusum // VIsnik Umanskogo natsIonalnogo unIversitetu sadIvnitstva. "MIkrobIologIya". - 2016. - № 1. - S. 27- 30.