The regularities of obtaining of osteoplastic porous composites based on 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate with polyvinylpyrrolidone copolymers in the presence of mineral fillers (hydroxyapatite, montmorillonite and wollastonite) under ultrasound are researched. The influence of ultrasound, nature and amount of inorganic filler on the polymerization rate, copolymers composition and composites porosity has been determined. It was found that homopolymerization of 2-hydroxyethyl methacrylate without filler under ultrasound action does not occur in experiment conditions. In the presence of polyvinylpyrrolidone without filler, the compositions are being polymerized with low velocity. Mineral fillers form a heterogeneous medium in compositions. Such compositions, under the action of ultrasound polymerize very rapidly and polymerization is accompanied by the simultaneous foaming of the composition. The chemical mechanism of polymerization reaction of compositions under the action of ultrasound is proposed. The participation of polyvinylpyrrolidone in the reactions of graft and block copolymerization has been confirmed by IR spectroscopic studies. Comparison of the influence of mineral filler nature on efficacy and grafting degree showed that montmorillonite the most actively impact on the copolymerization reaction. In its presence the copolymerization reaction can occurs both via radical and ionic mechanisms.
The obtained under ultrasound action composites have defined porous structure confirming by photographs made using transmitted electron microscopy. Under the influence of ultrasound a porous composite structure is formed even without applying of special foaming agents. The main properties of porous composites (general porosity, pore diameter, conditional density, compressive strength) are studied depending on the initial compositions, nature and amount of the filler. For the same content of the filler in case of use of montmorillonite, the obtained composites are characterized by the smallest average pore size. Wollastonite -containing composites have the largest diameter of pores and the lowest mechanical parameters. The obtained results were used to improve the technology of obtaining osteoplastic porous composites.
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