: 196-209
Department of Design and Architecture Fundamentals Lviv Polytechnic National University
Lviv Branch of Kyiv National University of Culture and Arts

One of the examples of preserved bastion fortifications on the territory of
Ukraine is the castle in Yahilnytsia. Аt presents on the territory of the castle escarpment is
preserved, which forms the contour of the double tenal front and adjacent half-bastions with
curtains. The aim of the research is to generalize information about the genesis and type of
defensive fortifications of the castle in Yahilnytsia.
Castles in Hust, Halych, Chernihiv (Ukraine) have been chosen as analogues for the
study; fortress in Komárno (Slovak Republic); chances in the city of Opuzen (Croatia); castle
in the village Uraz near Wroclaw (Poland); Leher Schanze (trenches) (Bremerhaven,
As a result of the research, it has been discoverd that the type of fortifications realized in
Yahilnytsia, in which a double tenal front was arranged in one of the directions next to the
bastion, has been proposed in treatises since the end of the 16th/ beginning of the 17th centuries
as an option of possible solution for trenches or forts. In the realized objects in Europe, the
combination of bastion and tenal fortifications is found mainly in forts, castles and fortresses
of cape type.
As a result of the analysis of theoretical works and analogous structures, it has been
found that the considered type of fortifications, in which tenal and bastion fronts were
combined in one outline, was relevant in Europe during the 16th - 18th centuries. This type of
fortifications could have been built in the castle in Yahilnytsia as for back as the first half of
the 17th century, as this date coincides with the period of spreading of bastion fortifications on
the territory of the Rzeczpospolita. Different thickness of the escarpment wall on various ridges
and the change in the level of the day surface of the yard suggest that the fortifications were
modernized in the second half of the 17th / beginning of the 18th centuries, and therefore could
have a different from the preserved one original form of fortifications. More accurate dating
of the preserved fortifications requires architectural and archaeological research directly on
the site.
The results of the study can be applied as recommendations for the restoration and
display of castle fortifications, as well as to supplement theoretical works on the history of

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