FORTIFICATION OBIECTS AND STREET NETWORK DEVELOPMENT IN THE HISTORICAL PART OF CHERNIVTSI CITY IN THE 18th-20th CENTURIES

2020;
: 28-45
1
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Department of Architecture and Conservation
2
L’viv Polytechnic National University

Formation and development of the central part of Chernivtsi is a long historical
process. The settlement, which emerged in the XIV century, underwent major urban
transformations that took place during the XVIII-XX centuries. They became an important
period of creation of the renewed structure plan of the city area which is still in operation. The
historical city centre has been changing its structure, size, functional organization during a long
time. The objective of the research is to study and compare the main parameters and
characteristics of the city at certain historical stages by analysing the development of its transport
network. The purpose of the article is to review and analyse available cartographic materials and
study the street network development in the historical part of the city in the late XVIII - XX
centuries. The article highlights the factors that played an important role in the formation and
development of Chernivtsi city centre, in particular, strengthening and expansion of economic
ties. According to the findings, discovery of new trade routes became a decisive factor that
influenced the development of Chernivtsi, determined the city structure and directions of the
main streets. Other important factors include natural conditions and local terrain, social
economic and administrative impact. Studies have shown that the historical centre of Chernivtsi
evolved according to the existing structure plan. Analysis of cartographic materials and historical
sources allows to characterize the basic principles of urban development. Expansion of the street
network and squares, as well as trends in the planning of residential areas provide an opportunity
to assess their nature, scale and size. Topographical maps enabled us to devise comparative
schemes of urban development and evolution of city boundaries throughout the studied period.
The city center moved gradually to new areas in the south-western direction. This feature of the
city development provides important materials for urban study. This work can be primarily aimed
at studying the urban planning structure, defense lines, public spaces, etc. The city developed in
an extensive way, pushing the boundaries of the city center, creating new parallel urban
complexes with new central squares. The most difficult task for scientists today is to localize these
boundaries for different stages.
The next difficult task is to find out old defense systems existed in the different parts of the
city in the past. A completely unresolved question is how defense complexes influenced the
development of the planning structure. The study allowed to highlight the prerequisites for major
urban transformations in the historical part of Chernivtsi in the XVIII - XX centuries.

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