THE PROBLEM OF CASTLE RUINS CONSERVATION WITHIN THE RESTORATION ACTIVITIES FORMATION

2020;
: 62-75
1
Lviv Polytechnic National University

The article reveals the history of the restoration activity formation on the example of the
castle ruins restoration in Ukraine and Europe during the 19th-20th centuries.
Castles have been constantly transforming since their foundation. Each subsequent
owner of the castle strengthened it, restored it after its destruction, made changes to the building
architecture. And in the 19th century, an understanding of the value of such architectural objects
was developed, and various methods for their preservation began to be proposed. Stylistic
restorations are considered on the example of Trakai Island Castle (Lithuania) and Pierrefonds
castle (France). Archaeological restorations aimed at conserving objects reflect the Upper Castle
in Vilnius (Lithuania) and Heidelberg Castle (Germany). Scientifically based, the restoration is
presented at facilities in Olesko Castle (Ukraine) and in Warsaw, Inovlodz (Poland). Woodstock
Palace (England) is an example of the architectural monument destruction, and Tatar Tower of
Ostroh Castle (Ukraine) is a symbol of a good future which is revealed in front of the castles in
a state of long ruin. Positions on the restoration of architectural monuments have been analyzed
by a number of scientists such as Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, Alois Riegl, Camillo Boito,
Yan Zakhvatovich.
It was the restoration of the castle ruins that sparked a discourse on how to preserve
architectural monuments. After all, a castle is one of the most complex types of structures,
including its structure, location, and function. Since the beginning of their founding, castles have
been the subject to constant interference with their material structure, which in the 19th century
became more important than their utilitarian purpose. The conservation method comes out on
top, but it is often paired with fragmentary restoration. In any case, the object must function and
be visited, regardless of whether it is compositionally complete or fragmentarily preserved,
because the interest in it ensures its further existence.

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