PROBLEMS OF RESEARCH OF URBAN DEFENSE COMPLEXES OF CITIES OF THE EASTERN PODOLIA IN THE 16th-18th CENTURIES

2020;
: 87-109
1
Lviv Polytechnic National University
2
Lviv polytechnic national university, Department of Architecture and Conservation

In this article the authors touch on the methods of fortifications of the cities of
Eastern Podillya - the least studied region of Ukraine. Components of long-term urban
fortifications are considered as a single system of so-called urban defense complexes.
Mandatory components of this system are a defensive castle and fortifications of the
middletowns, which are recorded on the maps of military cartographers of the 17th-18th
centuries. With this in mind, the authors clarify in the article the strategic importance of
Eastern Podillya for the state and consider the development of urban defense complexes on
its territory in retrospect. The analyzed sources allow us to speak about two periods of
fortification development in Eastern Podillya. The first concerns the subordination of the
territory to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania during the reign of Vytautas I, who expanded to
the Black Sea coast and fortified the Southern Bug basin with a chain of fortifications and
customs. After the Ottoman conquest of Constantinople and Crimea, trade ties with the
south were lost, and its territory became dangerous for Podillya due to raids by nomads.
Lithuania lost Vytautas' southern conquests and became completely dependent on Poland
as a result of the introduction of a personal union. Subsequently, an administrative and
political system identical to other provinces of Poland was introduced on the territory of
Eastern Podillya and the Bratslav Voivodeship was formed. After the Union of Lublin, the
territory of Bratslav became a source of huge lands for private ownership of magnates, who
built their own systems for fortification of their estates, so the state was directly removed
from strategic planning of defense of Eastern Podillya, royal power was concentrated only
in the main capitals of Vinnytsia and Bratslav. On the basis of field surveys of partially
preserved urban defense complexes, the article identifies the main types depending on the
compositional and planning features. The location of fortifications on the terrain was also
analyzed with the help of Google Earth software capabilities. Comparison of the data of
relief cross-sections with the verified data of the foundation of fortified settlements revealed
a stable correlation. Thus, the fortifications of the cities that were founded in the first period
(Grand Duchy) were located on the heights of capes, ridges, hills, while the fortifications
of the later ones were located in the valley. Given the low level of research of Ukrainian
cities for the analysis of their defense systems, the authors recommend in further studies to
investigate in detail the groups of cities that formed the estate complexes of specific
magnate families in Podolia - Kalinov, Zbarazh, Zamoysk, and others for a unified defense
system. and highlighting the characteristics of the spatial planning composition.

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