PRESERVATION OF HISTORICAL FORTIFICATIONS AND VALUABLE URBAN STRUCTURE OF THE CITY OF LVIV (NOTES TO SCIENTIFIC AND DESIGN DOCUMENTATION - HISTORICAL AND ARCHITECTURAL BASIC PLAN)

2021;
: 11-25
Authors:
1
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Department of Architecture and Conservation

The article analyzes the research and design documentation "Historical and architectural
basic plan of the city of Lviv" (2020) in terms of identification and protection of fortifications. The
analysis of the documentation revealed little attention of the authors to the study and coverage of the
stages of development of the fortification lines of Lviv from the XIII to the XIX century. This
approach has led to the debatable identification of many objects by their historical, urban and
architectural value, inaccurate dating, lack of proposals for their protection. In particular, the
assessment of a complex of fortifications, the so-called "F. Hetkant's defensive line" from 1635
The authors of the documentation did not analyze the stages of development and assess the
time-varying urban structure of the quarters, even in the city center. The development of buildings in
the areas of the former suburbs was also not covered in detail. But these are areas that have been
filled with very important facilities and functions in the past. The nature of the development of the
quarters took different forms depending on the time of the site. The sites themselves developed
abruptly along with the movement of the lines of urban fortifications further from the city center. The
construction of a new, more modern line of fortifications and its advancement made it possible to
intensify construction in areas that were previously outside the fortified territory. Lviv has gone
through six such major stages of urban transformation associated with the development and
modernization of fortifications from the thirteenth to the nineteenth century. This relationship
between the development of fortification systems and the architectural-spatial and planning structure
is the key to understanding the urban history of the city. Without a detailed reconstruction of the
phases of construction of fortifications, it is impossible to properly navigate the nature of changes in
the architectural-compositional and planning structure of the city.
For example, after the removal of fortifications far beyond the central district of the city, began
active changes and intensification of housing and public buildings in areas of former suburbs, where
previously dominated by large monastic complexes and palaces of wealthy burghers. The quarters
here began to change the character of their urban structure, evolving from the shape of a quarter
with a palace and a garden-park in the suburbs (there were dozens of them in Lviv in the suburbs) to
a densely built-up quarter during the XVIII-XIX centuries. However, today in the slums of such
neighborhoods with their careful study can be found hidden relics of the original history of the city.
The web of neighborhoods laced with dense lace around the city center also has encoded
individual pages of unique urban history. The historical and architectural reference plan of the city
is a scientific documentation that should reveal all the specific features of different urban planning
formations - including the emergence and development of fortification lines, changes in hydrography,
changes in street planning, changes in the nature of buildings each quarter. According to the
provisions of the State Building Norms for the development of historical and architectural reference
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plans (2012) should be performed scientific study, analysis and classification of immovable cultural
heritage of the city by type (archeology, history, monumental art, architecture, urban planning,
landscaping art, natural landscape, science and technology). This study and analysis should end with
the definition of the stages of formation of each complex. Characteristic features and values of all
objects of cultural heritage by types should be revealed for each city site. Fortifications were a
particularly important element in the development of the city structure in the past. Their complexes
had the greatest impact on the planning structure of the city. Fortifications often dictated the
development of the city in one direction or another. Therefore, the theoretical reconstruction of the
stages of development of urban defense systems is an important task for the historical and
architectural reference plan.
Our research was implemented in the framework of the research topic of the Department of
Architecture and Restoration of the National University "Lviv Polytechnic" "Regeneration of
historic architectural and urban complexes" (№ state registration 0116U004110).
 

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