Phenomenon of non-straightness (refraction), non-uniformity (phase delays) of electromagnetic wave propagation (EWP) and turbulence (chaotic movements with the acceleration of objects of different size) are caused by the same reason - spatial heterogeneity of atmospheric density.
Thus it is considered that angular refraction 8 is mainly systematic phenomenon and is proportional to the length of EWP σ = f(l) and fluctuation of sighting target images that are caused by the turbulence are usually considered chaotic process and proportional to route length σ = f ( l^(1/2)). Experimentally proved, that maximum fluctuations of sighting target images σ max is proportional to L. It is explained on the basis of the law of buoyancy of elementary air particles in the atmosphere.
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