Purpose. The article presents examples of usage of modern technologies to improve classical geodetic measurements. Modern technologies such as 3d scanners or unmanned aircraft vehicles (UAV) can be applied to increase the accuracy of complex monitoring of tall and unreachable objects. There was shown an example of measurement of the wind speed impact on the Gliwice Radio Tower deflection. The Tower is one of the oldest and highest wooden (non-impregnated) towers in Europe and because of the historical past it’s very important object in the worldwide culture. The Tower is located in the open and undeveloped terrain. This means that it is exposed to strong winds. Unfortunately the life of the Tower is estimated at about 15–20 years and because of the fact that it’s very hard to mount on any additional sensor there was an idea to use the UAV to measure the wind speed. So far there was proved by classical tachometric observations and wind speed data adopted from publicly available information that the tower deflects in order to the wind speed and also that the average deflection from several levels of the Tower clearly correlate with the direction of the wind. Another example of utilization of modern technologies relate to the unreachable or hard to reach objects. There was shown an example of usage of UAV with mounted non metric camera to improve monitoring water basins surface in regions where coal extraction took place because of its significant impact on the landscape or agriculture. This paper demonstrates the idea of continuous monitoring of impacts of mining exploitation on location and reach of water bodies shoreline or shape and condition of river channels situated within the mining areas by appropriately equipped quadrotor. The last example presents the usage of 3d scanner and GNSS method to generate spatial map of underground labyrinths of the Fortress Klodzko. The fortress is a historical monument available to tourists, however underground there is a several-kilometer network of walkways. It’s important to inventory them in order to the safety, historical and tourism aspect. Some parts of these walkways are very hard to reach or sometimes even unreachable. By the usage of 3d scanner it was easy and fast to measure ale the nooks and crannies with millimetre accuracy and by binding the underground geodetic traverse with the reference points on the surface by GNSS technology it was easy to orientate the network of measured walkways. The aim of the article is to present possibilities of utilization of modern technologies in typical geodetic measurements on the basis of few examples. They were respectively selected to show that correctly applied technology can significantly improve the accuracy, reduce the time or costs of measurements or even both of them defined as efficiency.
1. E. Popiołek, "Ochrona terenów górniczych", AGH, Kraków, Poland, (2009) (in Polish).
2. H. Eisenbeiss, "UAV photogrammetry", PhD dis¬sertation no. 18515, Institute of Geodesy and Photogrammetry, ETH Zurich, Switzerland (2009).
3. H. Fourati, N. Manamanni, L. Afilal, and Y. Handrich, "A nonlinear filtering approach for the attitude and dy¬namic body acceleration estimation based on iner¬tial and magnetic sensors: bio-logging application", IEEE Sensors Journal, 11(1), 233–244 (2011).
4. J. Heikkila, O. Silven, "Calibration procedure for short focal length off-the-shelf CCD cameras", Procee-dings of the 13th International Conference on Pat-tern Recognition, 25–29.08.1996, Vienna, Austria, 166-170 (1996).
5. J. Gocał, "Geodezja inżynieryjno-przemysłowa",˙ AGH, Kraków, Poland, ISBN: 978-83-7464-327-6 (2010) (in Polish).
6. J. Zhang, Y. Wu, E. Liu and X. Chen, "Novel approach to position and orientation estimation in vision-based UAV navigation", IEEE Transactions on Aerospace and Electronic Systems, 46(2), 687–700 (2010).
7. O. Spinka, O. Holub and Z. Hanzalek, "Low-cost reconfigurable control system for small UAVs", IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, 58(3), 880–889 (2011).
8. S. d'Oleire-Oltmanns, I. Marzolff, K. D. Peter and J. B. Ries, "Unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) for monitoring soil erosion in Morocco", Remote Sensing, 4(11), 3390–3416 (2012).
9. W. Janusz, R. Mielimąka, M. Niezabitowski, J. Orwat, P. Sikora, "Surface monitoring of water basins based on use of autonomous flying robots", proceedings of 20th International Conference on Methods and Models in Automation and Robotics, p. 376-381, ISBN 978-1-4799-8701-6 (2015).
10. Z. Kurczyńki and R. Preuss, "Podstawy fotogrametrii", OWPW, ISBN: 978-83-7207-413-3 (2011) (in Polish).
11. Z. Y. Wu, Y. J. Zeng, H. X. Shao and L. Feng, "Bet-terment of attitude estimation based on complementary filter applied in drumstick", Proceedings of the World Congress on Information and Communication Technologies (WICT 2012), Trivandrum, 1162-1165 (2012).
12. www.muzeum.gliwice.pl (in Polish)
13. www.twierdza.klodzko.pl (in Polish)