Biodegradable Polymers for Food Packing – Factors Influencing their Degradation and Certification Types – a Comprehensive Review

Authors: 
Agnieszka Guzman, Natalia Gnutek and Helena Janik

In this paper an overview of novel biodegradable polymers for food packaging is presented. The aim was to present factors influencing polymer degradation and biodegradation in various environments. It was noted that biodegradable polymers are an imperfect alternative for classical polymers and their decomposition strongly depends on degradation environment. It was also shown that there are various approaches in different countries to certification of biodegradable polymer materials, which rather complicates its application than promotes it.

[1] Derraik J.: Mar. Pollut. Bull., 2002, 44, 842.
[2] Brown S.: Seven Billion Bags a Year: as Landfill or Litter, the Plastic Bag is Increasingly Unpopular and Dangerous to our Wildlife, Australian Conservation Foundation 2003.
[3] Mrosovsky N. et al.: Mar. Pollut. Bull., 2009, 58, 287.
[4] Mascarenhas R. et al.: Mar. Pollut. Bull., 2004, 49, 354.
[5] Tourinho P. et al.: Mar. Pollut. Bull., 2010, 60, 396.
[6] Tomas J., Guitart R., Mateo R. and Raga J.: Mar. Pollut. Bull., 2002, 44, 211.
[7] Alwaeli M.: The Impact of Product Charges and EU Directives on the Level of Packaging Waste Recycling in Poland, Resources, Conservation and Recycling, 2009, doi:10.1016/j.resconrec.2009.11.011.
[8] Verghese K., Jollands M. and Allan M.: 5th Australian Conference on Life Cycle Assessment, Melbourne, 22-24 November 2006.
[9] Clapp J. and Swanston L.: Environ. Polit., 2009, 18, 315.
[10] Helbling C., Abanilla M., Lee L. and Karbhari V.: Composites A, 2006, 37, 1102.
[11] Ipekoglu B., Boke H. and Cizer O.: Build. Environ., 2007, 42, 970.
[12] Kister G., Cassanas G., Bergounhon M. et al.: Polymer, 2000, 41, 925.
[13] Proikakis C., Mamouzelous N., Tarantili P. and Andreapoulos A.: Polym. Degrad. Stabil., 2006, 91, 614.
[14] Lucas N., Bienaime C., Belloy C. et al.: Chemosphere, 2008, 73, 429.
[15] Schyichuk A., Stavychna D. and White J.: Polym. Degrad. Stabil., 2001, 72, 279.
[16] Tsuji H., Echizen Y. and Nishimura Y.: Polym. Degrad. Stabil., 2006, 91, 1128.
[17] Shah A., Hasan F., Hameed A. and Ahmed S.: Biotechnol. Adv., 2008, 26, 246.
[18] Hueck H.: Int. Biodeter. Biodegrad., 2001, 48, 5.
[19] Walsh J.: ibid, 16.
[20] Bonhomme S., Cuer A., Delort A.-M. et al.: Polym. Degrad. Stabil., 2003, 81, 441.
[21] Gross R. and Kalra B.: Science, 2002, 297, 803.
[22] Gross R., Gu J., Eberiel D. and McCarthy S.: J. Polym. Environ., 1993, 1, 143.
[23] Buchanan C., Pearcy B., White A. and Wood M.: J. Environ. Polym. Degr., 1997, 5, 209.
[24] Buchanan C. et al.: J. Environ. Polym. Degr., 1996, 4, 179.
[25] Tharanathan R.: Trends Food Sci. Tech., 2003, 14, 71.
[26] Siracusa V., Rocculi P., Romani S. and Dalla Rosa M.: Trends Food Sci. Tech., 2008, 19, 634.
[27] Yu P., Chua H., Huang A. et al.: Appl. Biochem. Biotechn., 1998, 70-72, 603.
[28] Rutkowska M., Jastrzebska M. and Janik H.: React. Funct. Polym., 1998, 38, 27.
[29] Kasuya K., Takagi K., Yoshida Y. and Doi Y.: Polym. Degrad. Stabil., 1998, 59, 327.
[30] la Carra F., Immirzi B., Ionata E. et al.: Polym. Degrad. Stabil., 2003, 79, 37.
[31] Oda Y., Asari H., Urakami T. and Tonomura K.: J. Ferment. Bioeng., 1995, 3, 265.
[32] Cofta G., Borysiak S., Doczekalska B. and Garbarczyk J.: Polimery, 2006, 51, 276.
[33] Rutkowska M., Krasowska K., Heimowska A. and Steinka I.: Polimery, 2002, 47, 262.
[34] Adamus G., Dacko P., Musiol M. et al.:Polimery, 2006, 51, 539.
[35] Krasowska K., Hejmowska A., and Rutkowska M.:ibid, 21.
[36] Cacciari I., Quatrini P., Zirletti G. et al.: Environ. Microbiol., 1993, 59, 3695.
[37] Bastioli C.: Polym. Degrad. Stabil., 1998, 59, 263.
[38] http://www.rsc.org/education/teachers/learnnet/cfb/carbohydrates.htm, accessed on the 5th of June 2010
[39] Rutkowska M., Krasowska K., Steinka I. and Janik H.: Pol. J. Environ. Stud., 2004, 13, 85.
[40] Alvarez V., Ruseckaite R. and Vazquez A.: Polym. Degrad. Stabil., 2006, 91, 3156.
[41] Kim M., Lee A., Yoon J. and Chin I.: Eur. Polym. J., 2000, 36, 1677.
[42] Gupta A. and Kumar V.: Eur. Polym. J., 2007, 43, 4053.
[43] Lunt J.: Polym. Degrad. Stabil., 1998, 59, 145.
[44] Sodergard A. and Stolt M.: Prog. Polym. Sci., 2002, 27, 1123.
[45] Middleton J. and Tipton A.: Biomaterials, 2000, 21, 2335.
[46] Kale G., Aurasa R., Singha S. and Narayan R.: Polym. Test., 2007, 26, 1049.
[47] Agarwal M, Koelling K. and Chalmers J.: Biotechnol. Prog, 1998, 14, 517.
[48] Pranamuda H., Tokiwa Y. and Tanaka H.: Appl. Environ. Microbiol., 1997, 63.
[49] Torres A., Li S., Roussos S. and Vert M.: J. Appl. Polym. Sci, 1996, 62, 2295.
[50] Tsuji H. and Suzuyoshi H.: Polym. Degrad. Stabil., 2002, 75, 347.
[51] Tsuji H and Suzuyoshi H.: ibid, 357.
[52] Krzan A., Hemjinda S., Miertus S. et al.: Polym. Degrad. Stabil., 2006, 91, 28.