Thermodynamics as a Base of Behaviour of Inanimate and Animate Nature

Authors: 
Georgiy Gladyshev and Mark Goldfein

In this article the concept which allows to investigate the behavior of open (biological) systems by using the laws of unbalanced (classical) thermodinamics is examined. The second law of thermodynamics is applicable to open systems as well, provided that only in case of considering the whole system (continuum) “open system–environment” the total entropy will always increase. The law of temporary hierarchies allows to resolve quasi-closed thermodynamic systems in open biosystems and to investigate their development (ontogenesis) and evolution (philogenesis) by studying changes in the value of Gibbs‘ specific fuctions of formation of any submolecular structure (including a population).

[1] Gladyshev G.: Termodinamika i Makrokinetika Prirodnykh Ierarhicheskikh Processov. Nauka, Moskwa 1988.
[2] Gladyshev G.: Supramolekulyarnaya Termodinamika – Klyuch k Osoznaniyu Yavleniya Gizni. IKI, Izhevsk 2003.
[3] Gladyshev G.: Biology Bulletin, 2002, 29, 1.
[4] Gladyshev G.: J. Math. Phys. Sci., 2002, 2, 1.
[5] Gladyshev G.: Progr. in Reaction Kinetics and Mechanism (Int. Rev. J.), 2003, 28, 157.
[6] Gladyshev G.: Adv. Gerontol., 2004, 13, 70.
[7] Gladyshev G.: Int. J. of Mod. Phys. B, 2004, 18, 801.
[8] Gladyshev G.: Adv. Gerontol., 2005, 16, 21.
[9] Goldfein M. and Karnaukhova L.: Osnovy Phiziki Sinteticheskykh i Prirodnykh Makromolecul. Izd-vo Saratov. Univ., Saratov 1998.
[10] Goldfein M., Ivanov A. and Malikov A.: Koncepcii Sovremennogo Estestvoznaniya. Izd-vo Saratovskogo Univ. Saratov 2009.
[11] Goldfein M., Ursul A., Ivanov A. and Malikov A.: Osnovy Estestvennonauchnoi Kartiny Mira. Izd-vo Saratovskogo Univ. Saratov 2011.