The aim. The aims of this study were: to calculate the parameters of horizontal deformation of Earth’s crust of Europe on the basis of annual velocity vectors of the horizontal displacement of permanent GNSS - stations, calculated according to the GNSS - observations during 2000 – 2010; to study the distribution and changes of horizontal deformations and earth's crust in Europe changes from 2000 to 2010 and to establish their relationship with the tectonic structure and the manifestation of seismic activity in the actual region. Methods. Previously calculated annual horizontal displacement velocity vectors of permanent stations in Europe have been used to study the deformation parameters of the crust. Using Delaunay triangulation, the territory of Europe was divided into a network of triangles with vertices in permanent GNSS - stations. for permanent GNSS network of triangles - stations, using linear interpolation within each triangle by its three vertices calculates deformations for points relative to each triangle network, so that for each set of points in each triangle there was provided with its calculated parameters of horizontal crustal deformation. The results. The results of this study are: schemes of distribution of Europe territory into networks of triangles of permanent GNSS - stations were constructed; parameters of horizontal deformation of earth crust for each triangle in each network of triangles of permanent GNSS - stations of Europe for the entire study period (2000 - 2010) were calculated; schemes of annual distribution velocity dilatation of the earth’s crust of Europe from 2000 to 2010 were built; places of the manifestation of the extreme values of dilatation’s velocities of the earth’s crust of Europe in each year of the study period were established; scheme of the manifestation of the extreme values of dilatation’s velocities of the earth’s crust of Europe (compression and tension) for all period of study was constructed; schemes of the manifestation of maximum and minimum values of the total earth crustal shear γ and maximum and minimum values of the minimum and maximum axis of the earth’s crust of Europe deformation (E1 and E2) for the period from 2000 to 2010 were built; analysis of the obtained schemes to establish a relationship with the tectonic structure of Europe was done. The science novelty. Analyzing schemes, built as study result, it was established: places of the manifestation of extreme values of dilatation’s velocities of the earth’s crust of Europe in each year of study period; relationship between the expression of extreme values of velocity crust dilatation in Europe and major tectonic faults and geological zones, their display in locations with low thickness of the crust (below 25 km), and the relationship of these manifestations of the extreme values of the high places seismic activity in Europe during all period of studied (2000 – 2010); minimum values of the total displacement of the crust γ (less than 0,2•10-8 1/year) are concentrated in the Great European Plains while the maximum value of the total crustal shear γ (more than 20,0•10-8 1/year) are shown in the following main geological zones, as Dinaridy, Appennins, Pyrenees, Iberian massif, Alpine-Himalayan folded belt and the Mediterranean belt; manifestations of large (over 10•10-8 1/year) the maximum values the minimum and maximum axis crust deformation (E1 and E2) concentrated in areas the same major geological zones where are concentrated maximum values of total crust shear γ, in the Great European Plain the manifestations of maximum value of the minimum and maximum axis crustal deformation in Europe (E1 and E2) are small (from -0,1•10-8 1/year to -0,9•10-8 1/year) or absent. Calculated parameters of horizontal crustal deformation in Europe and built by these parameters schemes prove significant deformation processes in studied region which connected with the major geological faults and zones and the manifestation of seismic activity in Europe during the whole study period (2000 – 2010). Extreme deformation processes in certain areas quite well reflect the tectonic structure of expression in Europe. Practical significance. Parameters of horizontal crust deformation in Europe from 2000 to 2010 were calculated and the schemes of manifestation of these parameters were built. It was detected the relation between these parameters of horizontal crustal deformation with the tectonic structure of Europe and the manifestation of seismic activity in this region will help for further in-depth research in Europe in general or its separate parts. The proposed method can be used for similar studies of other geodynamic active regions.
- Esikov N. P. Tektonofizicheskie aspekty analiza sovremennyh dvizhenij zemnoj poverhnosti. [Tectonophysical aspects of the analysis of contemporary movements of the earth surface]. Novosibirsk: Izd. «Nauka» [Science] Sibirskoe otdelenie, 1979.
- Izotov A.A. and other Geodezicheskie metodi izuchenija deformacij zemnoj kory na geodinamicheskih poligonah (metodicheskoe rukovodstvo) [Geodetic methods for studying crustal deformation on the geodynamic polygons (guidance)]. Moskva: CNIIGAiK, 1985.
- Serant O.V., Avtoreferat, D217.9(4)b, Deformaciji zemnoji kory Jevropy za danymy GPS-vymiriv i jikh vzajemozv'jazok z sejsmichnoju aktyvnistju: avtoref. dys., k.t.n: 05.24.01.[Would crustal deformation in Europe according to the GPS-measurements and their correlation with seismic activity]: Abstract, D217.9 (4). Thesis Lviv: B.v., 2012. 21 p.
- Tretjak K.R., Vovk A.I. Doslidzhennja dynamiky ghoryzontaljnykh rukhiv zemnoji kory Jevropy za danymy GNSS sposterezhenj (2000 – 2010) [Study of dynamics of horizontal crustal movements in Europe according to GNSS observation (2000–2010)]. Naukovyj zhurnal «Gheodynamika» [Scientific journal «Geodynamics»]. Vypusk 2(13)/2012, pp. 5–17.
- Argus D.F., Heflin M.B., Plate motion and crustal deformation estimated with geodetic data from the Global Positioning System. Geophysical Research Letters 22: doi: 10.1029/95GL02006.
6. Asensio E., Khazaradze G., Echeverria A., King R. W. and I. Vilajosana., GPS studies of active deformation in the Pyrenees, Geophysical Journal International, Volume 190, Issue 2, pp. 913-921, August 2012.
7. Calais E., Nocquet J.-M., Tardy M., Current strain regime in the Western Alps from continuous Global Positioning System measurements, 1996-2001, Geology, 2002, 30, no.7, pp. 651-654.
8. Müller B, Zoback M.L., Fuchs K., Mastin L., Gregersen S., Pavoni N., Stephansson O., Ljunggren C., Regional patterns of tectonic stress in Europe Regional patterns of tectonic stress in Europe, Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Article first published online: 20 SEP 2012.
9. Serpelloni E., Faccenna C., Spada G., Dong D., Williams S., Vertical GPS ground motion rates in the Euro-Mediterranean region: New evidence of velocity gradients at different spatial scales along the Nubia-Eurasia plate boundary. Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth, Volume 118, Issue 11, pp. 6003-6024, November 2013.
10. Sibylle G., Hans-Ulrich W., Contributions to the Deformation Analysis in Germany Based on Precise and Continuous GPS Measurements, Natural Hazards, Volume 38, Issue 1-2, pp 177-197, May 2006.
11. Teferle F.N., Bingley R.M., Orliac E.J., Williams S.D.P., Woodworth P.L., McLaughlin D., Baker T.F., Shennan I., Milne G.A., Bradley S.L. and Hansen D.N., Crustal motions in Great Britain: evidence from continuous GPS, absolute gravity and Holocene sea level data., Geophysical Journal International, Volume 178, Issue 1, pp. 23-46, July 2009.
12. Zhao S, Lambeck K, Lidberg M., Lithosphere thickness and mantle viscosity inverted from GPS-derived deformation rates in Fennoscandia. Geophysical Journal International, Volume 190, Issue 1, pp. 278-292, July 2012.