The peculiarities of high-magnesium clay minerals occurrence in phanerozoic evaporite formations
Received: March 03, 2020
Іnstitute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of NAS of Ukraine
Іnstitute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of NAS of Ukraine
Іnstitute of Geology and Geochemistry of Combustible Minerals of NAS of Ukraine

The aim of the study is to unravel the high-magnesium clay minerals occurrence in the Phanerozoic marine evaporite deposits and to find a correlation of magnesium clay minerals distribution with other cyclic processes in the Earth’s history, primarily, with changes in seawater chemistry during the Phanerozoic history of the Earth. The methodology consists of summarizing published data about clay minerals associations of the World’s Phanerozoic marine evaporite formations. Results. 74 literature sources (including our previous studies), covering 37 marine evaporite formations of the World, allowed tracing the temporal distribution of authigenic high-magnesium clay minerals in marine evaporite deposits. Sepiolite, palygorskite, corrensite, talc, serpentine, and talc-smectite were used to isolate the age intervals of the distribution of high-magnesium clay minerals. Among all the formations studied, these minerals were found in 24 which spread unevenly over time. Thus, 18 formations appear to be the Upper Proterozoic, Upper Carboniferous, Permian, Triassic, Upper Paleogene, and Neogene evaporites formed from SO4-rich seawater chemical type. And only 6 formations (Cambrian, Silurian, Devonian, Lower Carboniferous, and Jurassic) are represented by evaporites formed from Ca-rich seawater chemical type. The main factor for the formation of high-magnesium clay minerals in evaporite basins is the elevated magnesium content which is characteristic of SO4-rich seawater. The presence of pyroclastic material is the second significant factor for the appearance of high-magnesium clay minerals in evaporite deposits.  It must be an alkaline acidic basic composition for corrensite, and an alkaline composition for sepiolite and palygorskite. Scientific novelty. The distribution of high-magnesium clay minerals in Phanerozoic marine evaporite deposits is consistent with secular variations of seawater chemistry. Magnesium minerals are characteristic of the stages of its SO4-rich type which is known for high magnesium content. Simultaneous with sedimentation volcanic activity that supplied pyroclastic material into the evaporite basin, is the second necessary factor for the distribution of high-magnesium clay minerals. These geodynamic processes occurring in the hydrosphere and lithosphere caused evolutionary changes of the distribution of high-magnesium clay minerals of marine evaporite formations. Practical importance. Secular variations in the distribution of high-magnesium clay minerals of the World’s marine evaporites, consistent with changes in seawater chemistry and patterns of sedimentary rock formation as a whole, may be an additional indicator of age distribution and prediction of a complex of useful minerals, including potassium-magnesium salts of certain composition, mineral waters, hydrocarbons etc.

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