Structural-kinematic relationships at the development of shear dislocations and their impact on localization of gas-dynamic phenomena on the example of Krasnoarmiiska monocline at Donbas

https://doi.org/10.23939/jgd2020.02.066
Received: September 01, 2020
1
Institute of geotechnical mechanics of National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine
2
Institute of geotechnical mechanics of the National Academy of Sciences of Ukraine

Purpose. The purpose of the paper is the reconstruction of the geodynamic development of the shear dislocation zone (shear stress fields) of the Krasnoarmiiska monocline (KM) of Donbas (Eastern Ukraine) and determining the relationships of their impact on the emergence of gas-dynamic phenomena (GDP) in coal sediments. Methodology. Methods of digital geological cartography, mining-geometric simulation, geological-structural analysis, and structural-geomorphological reconstruction are used for the analysis of structural-geological information. A complex of methods for statistical processing of data on the tectonic disturbance is used – estimation of the frequency of azimuth orientations by the roses-diagram method. Techniques of morphotectonic analysis of the coal bed (a mathematical technique for identifying the gradient structures) are applied. Results. A tectonic model of formation of pull-aparts in the mode of transtension on the territory of KM (on the example of “Dobropilska” mine) is proposed, which results in manifestations of GDP (in particular “wet blowers”) in the form of a small kettle of subsidence in zones of en echelon overlapping of shears. The latter ones are formed under the action of the shear field of tectonic stresses (the axis of space shortening is (σ1) due to the horizontal shear is oriented in azimuth 160-170° (340-350°), the axis of elongation is (σ3) – 70-80° (250-260°). At this, the combination of fringing Y and T faultings in the conditions of transtension, most likely, provides gas permeability and water permeability of the zone. Structure-kinematic relationships of formation and development of shear dislocations of KM at Donbas are researched. Originality. The structural-kinematic relationships in the formation and development of shear dislocations of the Krasnoarmiiskyi district of Donbas and their impact on the formation of GDP zones were studied firstly. They based on the developed digital model of the actual tectonic disturbance of the rock massif on the example of the mining allotments group of KM. It is established for the first time: a) subparallel disjunctives of the NE orientation (15-30°), regardless of morphology, are as the boundaries of parallelogram-like blocks, forming either scaly packets or packets of fault scarps (depending on the morphology of the faultings), limited in the strike by the fault planes of N-NE and SW fall; in the case of scaly packets in the orientation of the fall of the fault plane it is dominated by the E-SE direction, the faultings limiting the fault scarps are characterized by the opposite WN direction of the fall; b) faultings of SE orientation are morphologically represented by shear-thrusts, and with depth change not only the angle of incidence from 35° to 85°, but also the azimuth of strike (from 20-25° to 50°), forming a fanlike feathering of the main faulting in the plan; c) faultings of different morphology are represented not by a single fault plane, but by a series of disturbances on all stratigraphic horizons, which form a zone of faulting formation – a vertical "tectonic strip"; d) in the SE part of the mine "Pioner" a duplex of compression (transpression mode) was found, it is expressed by a folded system (F), up to 287 m wide and fragments of sloping, changing the strike of the Novoiverskyi thrusts; e) the zone of tension duplexes located in the chain, which have a characteristic broken-step configuration at the "Dobropilska" mine, to which “wet blowers” are connected with, develops due to local strike (transtension); f) paragenesis of deformations in the study area corresponds to the shear field of tectonic stresses with north-northwest direction of compression and east-northeast tension, in which fault-shear displacement occurs along with the disjunctive breaks. Practical significance. The established relationships of the impact of shear tectonics on the formation of GDP in coal beds are important both by clarifying the mechanism of tectonogenesis and the nature of pull-aparts formation (en echelon zones of tension), and by the possibility of using additional prognostic criteria for searching for accumulations of free methane and its sudden manifestations (GDP) in coal beds. The application of knowledge of these relationships at mining enterprises will allow reducing the costs for the struggle against dangerous GDP manifestations and predicting them reliably.

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