The paper proposes one of the ways to set up an optimal mode of drilling oil and gas boreholes. The existing methods of control of the penetration rate and drill bit state were analysed. It was shown that due to incomplete and often distorted information it is difficult to perform control of the drilling process based on the mathematical model of the drill bit penetration, the solution of which is time dependencies of the penetration rate.
After analyzing the nature of the damage of surfaces was discovered the traces of the compression effect which arise along the cutters axis when squeezing it into the rock of delve. There were also founded the traces of deformation from the action of bending to the cutter, depending on the orientation of its slip on the face. We noticed the rubbing, fretting-corrosion, damage the local areas of the apertures walls caused by scrolling the cutter around its axis in the aperture of cones crown.