The article deals with the fundamental and ideological ideas of the most famous philosophers of thіs period. The historical formation of the Human Rights Institute has been explored in the far-sighted ideas of prominent thinkers. Yu. Lipsy in his writings states that natural law is a certain human right to life, which is laid by nature itself. He also devotes his attention to the mind and conscience of a person who, as a judge, is called to determine common sense acts and distinguishes them as immoral and moral.
The article deals with the analysis of the legal positions of the European Court of Human Rights formed in the process of hearing cases of human rights violations through language discrimination (discrimination on the basis of language) in the exercise of the right to education. On the basis of the analyzed legal positions it is possible to explain the unreasonableness of the requirements of some minority representatives to carry out the educational process exclusively in the language of the national minority, while ignoring the educational process in the state language.
The essence of people’s sovereignty as a legal phenomenon is clarified and its author’s definition for the science of constitutional law is proposed.
The article examines the role and importance of the basic principles of law in the formation of administrative law. It is noted that the most important task of the modern stage of the development of administrative law is the legal provision of the functioning of public authorities, their bodies and employees, as well as forms and methods of activity on the principles of the rule of law.
The article is devoted to analyzing the need to update the paradigm of legal regulation of drug use in the context of emerging global challenges and new generation human rights. The international framework for combating drug trafficking, in particular the 1961 Single Convention on Narcotic Drugs, the Convention on Psychotropic Substances, and the United Nations Convention against Narcotic Drugs and Psychotropic Substances, has been analyzed. It is pointed out that today many scholars and representatives of international NGOs deny a harsh criminal-repressive approach.
The article examines the worldview ideas of the most famous thinkers such as Thomas
Aquinas, Marseille Padua, and Niccolo Machiavelli, who have developed fundamental ideas of
human rights through their work, and their teaching is a great legacy for the modern world.
Thomas Aquinas paid special attention to the moral virtues of man, highlighting justice as the
most important of them. He also substantiated the basic prerequisites for the creation and
functioning of the state as a tool for the achievement of the common good and good while
The article deals with some historical periods of creation, development and formation of
a human rights institute. The basic ideas of the most outstanding philosophers of this period
are investigated. From the time of Ancient Greece, the concept of human rights, which is
reflected in the philosophical thought of philosophers of this period, began to emerge. The
perception of the place of the person in state and social life has changed. Philosophers such as
Heraclitus, Plato, and Aristotle laid the cornerstones in creating this phenomenon in antiquity.
On the basis of the latest scientific research, the philosophical and legal concept of the
definition of «civil society» is thoroughly analyzed, Modern approaches to understanding the
concept are systematized. There searchis based on the scholarly views of prominent
philosophers, as well as the author’s own approach and conclusions about there search
The research is based on the scientific views of significant philosophers, as well as the
Theoretical understanding and philosophical comprehension of all legal phenomena
began with the traditional division of the right to positive and natural, so they are considered
as certain antipodes in the general consciousness, which, however, are the most practical and
significant types of legal thinking. We managed to trace the fact that it was the intensive
development of humanistic ideas in the context of new political and economic trends that led to
the emergence of the doctrine of “natural human rights”. Increasingly, among the general
The article analyzes the sphere of application for Article 3 of the European Convention for the Protection of Human Rights and Fundamental Freedoms. Based on the decisions of the European Court of Human Rights, the distinction between the concepts of torture and inhuman treatment has been researched. Attention is drawn to the absolute character of Article 3 of the Convention, regardless of circumstances or situations.