The article of the positions of the various schools of philosophy examines the philosophical and legal category of "personality", the main approaches to the definitive abovementioned issues and highlights their main content. The author deals with defining in detail three aspects of human existence: matter, social cohesion and human personality and proved that the views of most philosophers on this issue coincide.
The article substantiates the relevance of the study of the phenomenon of personality in the philosophy of neo Thomism; individual phenomenon determined by the category of spirituality, identity, autonomy, and self-esteem, initiative, self-improvement, love. It is proved on the basis of philosophical treatises on individual autonomy neo-Thomism created the world, and the nature of society, not a supernatural being – God. The essence of autonomy is, in fact, that “personality turned to God” that “she must surrender to him completely”.