spectrum shaping

Effective capacity evaluation model for cognitive radio networks using ofdm

In this paper considered the cognitive radio (CR) networks with the GSM network like primary network cooperation possibility. The cognitive radio system meant radio with a self-management mechanism with different levels of ability to adapt to the changing radio environment. The self-management mechanism is based on the principles of learning and artificial intelligence. In world practice, the frequency assigned to a particular entity in a certain area on a long term basis. However, most commonly frequency for this designated area not always used, and as necessary.