TRIASPOL AS "IDEAL SOCIALIST CITY": TRANSFORMATION OF ARCHITECTURAL AND URBAN-PLANNING UTOPIAS OF INTERWAR PERIOD

SA.
2019;
: 106-122
1
Lviv Polytechnic National University
2
НУ «Львівська політехніка» Кафедра Архітектурного проектування та інженерії

In recent years, the interest of young scholars and researchers in the urban environment has been the subject of modernist heritage. Obviously, the time has come to rethink the post-war late modernism as part of the historical epoch with the application of the principles of restoration techniques. Especially when we talk about objects of architecture that contain cultural value. Relevance is exacerbated by the process of decommunization. In the process, it is important to separate the ideologically outdated harmful components from the architectural and artistic creativity of domestic authors, to hold the dispassionate and professional valorization of Soviet heritage objects and to preserve for their future generations their best examples, complexes, ensembles, historical habitats and the environment. The urgency is also manifested in the fact that interwar modernism in Western Ukraine has already devoted a number of meaningful works of domestic, Polish, Czech and Romanian authors, while the theme of Soviet modernism in the Dnieper is still open. The terminology database is also not formulated. This leads to confusion in key concepts and phenomena that accompany the emergence and development of this architectural school. For example, it is not determined whether the period of interwar architecture of the USSR is transitional or it is an independent phenomenon of inter-war architecture. All these questions encourage us to seek answers in literary and archival sources of those years, studying the political, social, cultural and ideological context of time.The architectural environment of Tiraspol during the interwar period is very good represented by the research problems listed above. The central part of this city during its stay in the status of the capital of the AMSR has undergone significant changes. Its town-planning system is still formed by ensembles and complexes of buildings built at that time.

For the purpose of the study, the authors set out to identify the main stages of the genesis of the interwar Tiraspol architecture, to identify the areas of their location in the modern urban environment.

The nature and historical mapping of the areas of development of the interwar period in Tiraspol, analyzed during the time of his being in the status of the capital of the Moldavian Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic in the composition of Ukraine, was analyzed. With the help of iconography, graphic reconstructions of the primitive facades of public and residential buildings have been developed. The inventory covers the central streets and squares of the city. The three main periods of the genesis of architectural and town-planning trends have been identified. According to the results of the research, the second stage, the so-called "postconstructivism", is presented in the most complete and large-scale form, when architects, under the influence of a difficult and turning point in Soviet architecture, built their own separate school, which did not resemble either modernism or historicism or neoclassicism. Today, this cultural heritage, which forms the image of the city of Tiraspol, requires revalorization and more careful professional study

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