ARCHITECTURAL AND PLANNING PRINCIPLES OF THE RENAISSANCE “IDEAL CITY”, REALIZED DURING THE LOCATION AND FORMING OF THE ZHOVKVA IN 16 AND 17 CENTURES

SA.
2019;
: 68-96
Authors:
1
Lviv Polytechnic National University

Zhovkva belongs to one of the insufficiently studied, but highly important urban-planning formations in the Halychyna region (Western Ukraine). The town is located 23 km north-west of Lviv. Zhovkva is the modern title of the town. In the historical documents, it is named Zholkiev (or Żółkiew, pol.) - this was also the name the family town of Żółkiewski in the Lublin region. Next to the official name, Ukrainian casual “Zhovkva” was also used, which was established as a modern name.

Scientific and academic works which have appeared in the recent years state that Zhovkva is an example of late Renaissance urbanism and was built in late 16th century according to a project based on the concept of “ideal city” (yaremych H.; Bevz M.).  In accordance with historical sources, this city was founded by Stanisław Żółkiewski (Zholkevski) in 1594 on the territory which was part of the village Vynnyky. Wysocki’s family owned the village at that time. Foundation of the city took place on the eastern bank of the Svynia River, near the old castle of the Wysockis.

In 1995, according to the decree of the Government of Ukraine, the historical part of the town received the status of the State Historical and Architectural Conservation Area. The Conservation Area is still functioning, managing the restoration works in the castle and in the central part of the town.

Zhovkva was one of the earliest realizations of the concept of "ideal town" on Ukrainian lands. There are not many Ukrainian cities that have preserved the Renaissance structure to this day. A part of the specialists include Sharhorod in Vinnytsia region which was founded in 1580 by the Chancellor of the royal court Zamojski with the participation of architect Bernardo Morando to such objects.

The town of Zhovkva belongs to the late Renaissance foundations of private residential towns in the territory of the Polish state at the end of the16thcentury. The urban-spatial structure of the town was designed according to the scheme of the Renaissance “ideal town”. In case of Zhovkva, the spatial structure of the town consisted of two conjugated parts: the castle and the fortified inner town. The combination of these two parts, when the central square of the town is combined with the main facade of the castle complex – was rare.

Zhovkva is one of the towns where the author is known – the Italian architect Paolo de Ducato Clamensi (known in Lviv under the name "Pavlo Shchaslyvyi", “the Happy Paul”), a member of Lviv craft masonry gild, who at the time was in service of hetman Stanislav Zholkevski. In 1601-1612 he was appointed by the owner of the town for the position of head of the town court. The construction of the castle and the town became an ambitious project and a life-long affair for the architect.

 The materials of the analysis allow us to state the hypothesis, that the architect planning the town used theoretical treatises in its architecture. We believe that he implemented one of the schemes of an „ideal town”, which was described in "Four Books on Architecture" by Pietro Cataneo (published in Venice in 1567). Thus, Zhovkva is one of the only Europian towns built on the base of the Cataneo’s theoretical model.

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