THE VOLUMETRIC-SPATIAL ELEMENTS OF HOUSING IN CENTRAL PARTS OF SMALL HISTORICAL CITIES OF WESTERN UKRAINE

SA.
2019;
: 114-122
Authors:
1
Lviv Polytechnic National University, Department of Architecture and Restoration

The article presents the results of the bulk-spatial and architectural features analysis of residential buildings at the central parts of small historical towns of Western Ukraine, which is significantly damaged. This is especially evident among the housing of non-market blocks in central parts of small historic cities.

Due to the increasing of historical buildings reconstruction intensity, gradually disappears their architectural identity, which is represented by a large variety of bulk -spatial and architectural solutions of buildings. New buildings often destroys the historical environment, because it does not correspond to historical traditions.

The study of bulk -spatial and architectural features of residential development was carried out in non-market blocks of ten small historical cities: Zhovkva, Bibrka, Dobromil, Komarno in Lviv oblast; Ivano-Frankivsk region - Halych, Rohatyn, Bolechov; Ternopil region - Berezhany, Buchach, Pidhaytsi. The analysis of residential development allowed to reveal its architectural diversity within the central parts of the studied historic cities

On the basis of the bulk-spatial characteristics analysis, were identified and structured variants of the buildings front wall plan konfigurations, completion of facades, existing spatial elements and methods of buildings roofs organization. Their diversity and prevalence in the studied cities are illustrated.

Among the existing houses, 6 ways of the front wall plan resolving for buildings of the historical typological group were identified (Table 1.1). The most widely used of them are: a straight facade wall, a facade with a porch and a risalite. For the modern typological group, there are 4 ways of front wall plan resolving, and the most widely used of them is a direct facade wall. (table 1.2)

Among the ways of the houses facades ending, which are 7 for the historical typological group (Table 2.1), the most widely used are: the use of cornices and friezes of various decorations. It is also quite used a mezzanine and dromer windows of various shapes. Mezzanines are most often used in the cities of Ivano-Frankivsk and Lviv oblasts. In the modern typological group, there are only 4 ways of the houses facades ending, the most common of them is the use of cornices. Pediment, attic or frieze are no longer used for the houses facades ending. (table 2.2).

There are 4 bulk-spatial elements that are used on the buildings facades of both historical (Table 3.1) and modern typological groups (Table 3.2). The use of balconies is the most common.

As for methods of buildings roofs organization, there are 5 methods and two additional elements. Among the historical typological group (Table 4.1), the most widely used are hip and half gambrel roofs. For the modern typological group (Table 4.2) - shed and hip roofs. There are also combined ways of buildings roofs organization that are used for separately located buildings such as villa or gentry houses.

A visual examination of residential buildings of the studied blocks gave an opportunity to generalize its state. In most cases, because of significant damage of structural and decorative elements, the condition of residential buildings is unsatisfactory. Often the configuration of roofs during previous repair work has been changed.

Summarizing the the analysis of the bulk-spatial and architectural features of residential buildings of small cities historical centers, it should be noted that there are tendencies to simplify the buildings here. The variety of solutions to the buildings front wall plan konfigurations, completion of facades, existing spatial elements and methods of buildings roofs organization in the historical typological group is wider than in modern, respectively, the quality of the architecture of historical housing development was higher. Modern bulk-spatial solutions of buildings are larger and simpler

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