CREATIVE METHOD OF JAKUB KUBICKI IN ARCHITECTURE OF PALACE COMPLEXES OF THE LATE XVIII- THE EARLY XIX CENTURY

SA.
2020;
: 40-47
1
Lviv polytechnic national university, Department of Architecture and Conservation

The article covers the creative method of a famous Polish architect Jakub Kubicki, who worked in the late XVIII-the early XIX century within the territory of modern-day Poland and Ukraine. He is the author of such palace complexes as the palace in Berezhtse village and Vyshnivets urban-type settlement of Ternopil region, in Ladyhy village, Lashky village (Morozivka), Derkachi village, Semerenky village, Morozivka village, Illiashivka village, Samchyky village of Khmelnytskyi region, Napadivka village of Vinnytsia region Ukraine; and within the territory of modern-day Poland - a palace and park complexes in Radziejowice, in Bejsce, in Pławowice, in Młochów, in Białaczów, in Hełenow and Belweder palace in Warsaw.

The concept of a creative method is very wide-ranging and comprehensive. It’s not just about the set of certain geometrical proportions, compositional techniques and planning features, but also about the combination of architectural-planning special features and natural-climatic, historical, economical factors. A creative method of an architect is a kind of synthesis of creative methods of the artist, engineer, arranger of production professions. Herewith, the artistic and scientific methods don’t arise from each other but find interreflection in the process of architectural art.

The basis for emphasizing creative method of an architect can be represented by the result of artistic activities that are artistically expressional and unique; there is no doubt that the number of objects representing us necessary connection between author’s works and enabling us to trace the dynamics of his historical development is also of great importance. It is possible to trace the creative method of an architect due to different bases the author followed, namely: philosophical underpinnings and the worldview; artistic bases; psychological bases; scientific-theoretical bases; engineering and technical bases; theoretical and methodological bases; principles of project modelling.

Creative method or style of every architect of a certain period shapes a style of the era. In the works of architects, there are reflected important issues and problems of theory and practice of architectural life of the time. J. Kubicki is also among the architects whose works attract attention with a high level of excellence. He became a mediator between the pure classicism and Empire style of the XVIII century. Although the architect was the representative of mature Classicism with the influence of Palladian school, his works have their fingerprint and are characterized by such typical elements in the projects as sharp axial plan and symmetry of facades of palaces; simple rectangular forms in the plan of a palace were supplemented by prominent risalits; the main entrance was accentuated by a portico with colonnade; the use of classical order elements that were decorated with sculptures and military emblems in façade decoration. Interior arrangement in the palaces was symmetrical, two-path, with gorgeous living-room and entrance hall that contained stairs. Interiors were profusely decorated with moulding and highlighted with colours (hence the name blue living room, gold or red room).

Hence, creative method of Jakub Kubicki was based on such architectural concepts as symmetry, rhythm, spatiality and constructability, and it was shaped by: a) the set of principles of ideological-artistic perception and image reproduction of the world; b) imaginative approach to solving set architectural issues; c) outcomes of artistic activities that are expressional and unique; d) regular frequency of architectural concepts that became architectural rules of the architect; e) the set of certain geometrical proportions, compositional technique and planning features; f) creation of an object of architecture taking into account social and cultural development of an architect; g) overcoming of ordinary technique and traditions; h) creating own rules.

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