: 15-22
Lviv Polytechnic National University, the Department of Design and Fundamentals of Architecture

The paper substantiates the importance of visual and tactile functions of the human body in the process of creation of volumetric and spatial compositions in architecture and design planning; generalizes the profound academic knowledge of visual and attributable characteristics of objects and their geometrical parameters for the competent arrangement of hologram aspects of linear and tonal perspectives. The research is dedicated to the process of perception and understanding of the term “volume” as the main characteristic feature of survival and self-protection of humans in nature. These behavior reflexes that are formed at an early age are developing in the following period of life with account for the spatial dimensions — obstacles and dangers for a human. The acquired experience of the utilitarian or household character transformed into an understanding of volume formation and interpretation of perception of the totem-and-sacral order that developed in functional processes of use of the spatial volume formation. Territorial and boundary characteristics of the primitive people transformed into an understanding of spatial areas for procuring food, specific features that characterized the volume as such.

The volume formation process of the visual perception of an object in architectural and spatial correlations did not appear right away. It underwent a long evolutionary process of visual perception of the three-dimensionality in natural spatial parameters. For the initial interpretation of the three-dimensionality, we exclude or ignore coloristic features — a qualitative embodiment of the volume, emphasizing the formative importance of analogies of the object identification. Temporal acquired understanding of the exterior or interior is ignored, interpreting only the volume and space of parts or their interrelations. In many sources, interpretation and understanding of the volume formation or volume are replaced by the term “shape formation”. However, the process of shape formation activates different functions of visual perception. As opposed to the planar aspect of the form that fits in the two-vector image, the function of the volume has a plastic and sculptural foundation of three-vector dimensions and is accompanied by the special feature of deepness or the third vector of Z-axis. Modeling, prototyping, or other forms of object formation envisage a change of observation of the viewing point and dynamics of the starting position of the visual observation. Spatial volume formation as the main function of human life plays a dominant role in the process of survival and creative activities of individuals. Functional and spatial coordination in everyday life and especially in architectural design would be impossible without it.

The paper highlights the principles of perception and understanding of the scheme of spatial and volumetric perception of an object. The basic mechanism of stereoscopy of the binocular vision in conditions of the spatial correlation gives the possibility of a volumetric understanding of an object with its geometrical and parametric features and dimensions. The geometry of setting a distance to an object or focusing on its biological peculiarity of the angular sight of the left and right eye results in the process of sharpness setting and feeling of a distance to an object. This process is often presented as the liner and tonal perspective of an image. In parallel, with the evolution of visually planar basics of drawing and painting, skills of volumetric sculptural tactile imaging were developing. An inseparable function of the tactile and visual apparatus is accompanied by the acquired experience of physical and parametric characteristics. Acquired analogies of activity of ganglion cells that in our brain turn into conscious object associations of physical bodies are supplemented by coloristic characteristics of the spectral plan. The basic characteristics of the physical geometry are expanded by qualitative characteristics of the spatial, tonal, and coloristic order within the framework of the spectral corridor. Without them, the process of understanding an object is impossible. Visually tactile process of volume formation is not possible without the physical lightening of an object and perception of its shadow, and in their turn, they signify the real conditions of perception of a solid body with different forms of the thrown shadow. The main characteristics of the three-dimensionality include a psychological feeling of the body gravitation.

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