Due to the limited reserves of well-expanding clay raw materials, the active claydite factories are faced with the acute problem of obtaining high-quality claydite gravel, which has stable indicators for bulk density and durability. Taking into account the decisive role of the organic component in the physico-chemical processes of slipping of clay raw materials, it is important to study the possibility of using waste pearlite powder of illumination of unrefined oil in the production of expanded claydite gravel.
The study of physico-chemical processes in the clay masses during their heat treatment and the study of the structure and phase composition of claydite gravel was carried out using differential-thermal and electron-microscopic methods of analysis. As the main raw material was used “Sambirska” easy-tasting clay, and as additives - waste pearlite powder of illumination unrefined oil of private company “Oliyar”.
Investigation of the change in the structural viscosity of the masses of the "clay-waste pearlite powder" system during firing allows us to identify the temperature range in which the physico-chemical and crystallization processes take place and to develop optimal parameters for the heat treatment of claydite gravel. An additive to 4% (wt.) to clay pearlite powder results in a shift in the viscosity curve of the clay pearlite mass to the range of lower viscosity values in the range of temperatures of 850 ... 950 ° C in comparison with pure clay, indicating a higher degree of fusibility of the system and increased amount of liquid phase. The structure of claydite gravel from clay and supplements of pearlite is represented by the glass phase, reinforced with newly formed crystals of spinel and mullite, which increases the mechanical properties of claydite gravel.
The results of the research showed that the introduction into the clay of waste pearlitic powder up to 6% (by weight) positively affects the decrease in the average density of granules and increase the strength and coefficient of structural quality (CSQ) of expanded clay. The maximum value CSQ of granules is for masses with the use of pearlite 2 ... 4% (by weight). With an increase in the application of pearlite more than 6% (by weight), along with the increase in the strength of claydite gravel, a decrease in it’s CSQ is observed, due to an increase in the average density of granules due to excessive increase of organic compounds in the mass.
Thus, the use of organo-pearlitic additive to clay masses allows the complex to improve the quality of claydite gravel, expand the raw material base and effectively utilize the industrial waste of oil production.
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