In the last decade, attention to the synthesis of plant-based monomers has been grown, due to their biocompatibility, non-toxicity, also their renewal. Polymers based on them can be used as an alternative to conventional polymers of petrochemical origin, to produce composites, coatings and other materials especially those that are used to decorate the interiors of houses and offices. There is a growing interest in plant oil-based monomers. A range of the hydrophobic monomers that are used to obtain paints, adhesives, plasticizers, coatings etc. were synthesized.
The main aim of the work was to synthesize (acryloylamino) ethyl oleate ("olive" monomer, OM) from triglycerides of olive oil and study the kinetic peculiarities and the mechanism for the free radical homo- and copolymerization, compared with the monomer based on the triglycerides of soy oil -(acryloylamino) ethyl soyate ("soy" monomer, SM).
The chemical structure of OM and SM were confirmed using 1H NMR and FT-IR spectroscopy. The presence of the vinyl group in the molecule and the double bonds in the acyl moiety of fatty acid causes, at their radical polymerization, the simultaneous occurring of chain growth reactions and chain transfer reaction to the monomer with the participation of allyl hydrogen atoms in the α-position to the double bond in the fatty acid fragment. The kinetic peculiarities for the homopolymerization of OM, reactivity ratios (r1, r2) in copolymerization of OM with styrene, and vinyl acetate, as well as the Q−e parameters of OM, were determined. The differences between the structures of OM (the presence of only one double bond in the acyl moiety of fatty acid) compared with SM, which contains two double bonds, allow decrease the quantity of chain transfer reaction and formation of low-activity radicals, due to decrease amount of allylic hydrogens, also increase the rate of polymerization and polymer molecular weight.
The synthesized OM is a promising comonomer in the polymerization reactions. Even with low its content in finite macromolecules of copolymers, OM gives them unique properties. Resulting comonomers could be used as surface-active agents, emulsifiers, adhesives, interphase modifiers and polymer materials for drug delivery.
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