THE USE OF ULTRASOUND IN REACTIONS OF OBTAINING OF POLYVINYLPYRROLIDONE COPOLYMERS AND (NANO)COMPOSITES ON ITS BASE

2018;
220-225
1
Lviv Polytechnic National University
2
Lviv Polytechnic National University
3
Lviv Polytechnic National University
4
Lviv Polytechnic National University
5
Lviv Polytechnic National University

Usually, in chemical industry the energy of ultrasound is being used to intensify technological processes. However, the complexity of the mechanism of ultrasound action makes it difficult to create a single common theory that could explain its influence on the chemical reactions. Therefore, in each particular case wide-ranging studies of the influence of ultrasound on the chemical reaction, as well as on the structure and properties of the synthesized substances and materials are required.

(Co)polymers of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) with (meth) acrylic esters are used in various fields of human activity, in particular, in medicine, biotechnology and pharmacy. The above mentioned (co)polymers obtaine by the methods of block polymerization, polymerization in solution, suspension and emulsion polymerization. It can be expected that the use of ultrasound will intensify the polymerization reaction and will have a modifying effect on the structure and properties of polymers and composites on its base.

The purpose of the work is to research the influence of ultrasound on the polymerization reaction of homogeneous and heterogeneous compositions of (meth) acrylic esters with PVP and confirm the possibility of using it for the formation of (nano) composites on its base.

Ultrasonic research were carried out appliyng Ultrasonic disintegrator “Volna” model UZTA-0,4/22-OM, frequency of mechanical oscillations – 22±1,65 kHz, maximum power 400 VA, power regulation range 30 ... 100%. The ratio between its diameter and reactor diameter is 0,5.

The polymerization of 2-hydroxyethylmethacrylate–polyvinylpyrrolidone compositions, including the presence of calcium-containing mineral fillers, under ultrasound are researched. The influence of ultrasound on the polyvinylpyrrolidone destruction is dertermined. The activating influence of ultrasound on initiation of polymerization is confirmed. In case of homogeneous compositions, polymerization in ultrasonic field occurs only in the presence of polymerization initiators. Vinyl monomers, which form the phase boundaries with an aqueous polyvinylpyrrolidone solution are polymerized in an ultrasonic field without initiators in mild conditions. The use of ultrasound significantly intensifies the process of porous composites obtaining based on polymer-monomer compositions and calcium-containing mineral fillers, including nanosized. The developed (nano)composites are recommended for the application in medicine as osteoplastic materials for the replacement of damaged bone tissue.

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