In a highly competitive market enterprises, to increase production and sales, have to invest heavily in the development of stock capital. They make major construction, reconstruction, modernization, purchase and create their own noncurrent assets and other tangible and intangible fixed assets. Such activity of the company is referred to as the activity of capital investment. Its effective operation requires system management on the principles of autonomy and commercialization. In other words, investment activity should be carried out separately from other types of enterprise activity, produced objects of fixed assets are to be "sold" to the main (operating) activities of the company.
In the described system of financial and economic relations leading role should belong to the management of investment project implementation on the basis of budgeting. This process involves budgeting of local investment projects for all objects of future fixed assets. Information on local budgets is subject for generalization to obtain consolidated budgets (by types and groups of non-current assets, business units, construction sites, ways of implementing investment works, sources of financing of capital investments, etc.).
The main components of the budget, which will make up the value of investment projects, are to be direct and indirect expenses and profit.
Direct budgetary expenses should be differentiated on the following:
- Material expenses. Including materials, structures, machinery and industrial equipment, vehicles, tools, appliances, industrial and household equipment, transportation and procurement expenses and other material expenses;
- Services. Their value should be directly included into the cost value of investment projects. It is advisable to allocate internal and external service contractors as a part of services;
- Base and extra wages to the staff directly engaged in the works on creation of fixed assets;
- Deductions for state compulsory social insurance;
- Other direct expenses (for production of documents, business trips, etc.).
Indirect expenses include:
- General investment expenses of the units that perform the construction, manufacturing and improvement of fixed assets and other noncurrent assets;
- General administrative expenses. They include the expenses on the maintenance of management system (deputy head of the company on the capital investment, the department of capital investment, etc.) and general administrative departments (warehouse, transport station, etc.), maintaining capital investment activities.
Direct expenses should be calculated in accordance with the consumption of materials, contracts, orders and other documents. Indirect costs and profits are to be organized according to the established enterprise standards.
Budgets of investment projects shall be used in planning the volume of capital investments, for accounting of actual investment expenses and monitoring the use of enterprise resources
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