Instruments for border crossing limitations in the circumstances of European migration crisis

: 14-19
Received: October 18, 2018
Accepted: November 14, 2018
Lviv Polytechnic National University

The article identifies the historical origins of crisis phenomena in the field of migration to European countries. The most problematic aspects of migration processes are distinguished, those leading to strengthening anti-immigration moods. The ways of interaction with certain types of migration are systematized, and the role of border restrictions tools is defined. Common and distinct tools that can be targeted at forced or unregulated migrants are described. Different approaches to interaction with the corresponding types of migration from the legalization of migrants to the construction of walls are analyzed. While the legalization of unregulated migrants and the granting of refugee status (or similar protection) leads to an increase in the motivation of the next wave of migrants, the consequences of strengthening institutional constraints
may be the reduction of the share of state-authorized immigration and the formation of more complex ways to circumvent migration legislation. The proposed measures on migration are determined to be a logical continuation of ideas that form political doctrines of political parties. The extreme right-wing parties, which are traditionally critical of migration, propose measures to limit it and actively raise relevant issues during election campaigns. At the same time, left and centrist parties tend to be more moderate, and in their electoral campaigns, migratory issues are avoided. It is also demonstrated that construction of specific walls at the borders restrains the movement of migrants only locally, but performs a much more important symbolic function useful for political forces of right direction.

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