Summary «information Systems and Networks» Bulletin

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“information Systems And Networks” Bulletin

Summary «information Systems and Networks» Bulletin

RANKING WEB SITES ON THE INTERNET
Т.М. Basyuk, А.S.Vasulyk
Lviv Polytechnic National University, ISM department
In the article are described designing features of ranking websites on the Internet, are held the analysis of known systems of resources promotion and are shown internal and external factors of ranking. Possible schemes of organization of the Internet resources with link ranking use are analysed and suggested. The article describes the main problems that appears during optimization of pages for the set of requests and gives the scheme of distribution of keywords on resource pages.
Keywords - rankings, internet resource, relevance, optimization.
Every day the problem of analysing and ranking internet resources draws attention of more and more  researchers and experts in the field of The Internet Technologies. Since there appears a considerable number of new projects which are interesting and perspective, but remain unnoticed  among a wide variety of already existing web sites. Because of that, the important characteristic of generated resources, at first, should  be determination of target audience and regional features, as long as creatinging websites only for people can make their indexation and interpretation by searching works, so it can take a lot of time for website to develop and to reach its purpouse. Nowadays the development of internet resources should be done in two ways: on the target user and on the searching robots. Mentioned feature promoted appearance of the concept of search engine optimization. Under search engine optimization (SEO) we understand complex of measures to raise the site positions in the results that search engines give for users certain queries. Namely, the higher is the position of site in search results, the more interested users move up to it from search engines. Analyzing the efficiency of search optimization the cost of a target user is estimated considering the time we need to take site to the indicated positions and conversions of the site which they enter [1,5].
There is a chain of companies (Webeffector, Megaindex, Seozavr, Trustlink, Upominator) which are responsible for promoting internet resourses. The result of their work is web-site ranging by increasing its rating in popular search engins: Yandex, Google, Maіl.ru, Tut.by [3].
It is complicated continuous process, during which methods and algorithms of optimization and search are widely used. Implementation of this task will make it possible to formulate special features of designing system of resource ranging and will give means of adaptation of famous methods and algoritms to the problems of  decision support in particular field.
Purpose of research is to find specialities of projection of ranking websites system, which will provide means for conducting complex resource analysis and, depending on its results, will give recommendations on its improvement in order to promote it in search engine raiting. To achieve the goal it is necessary to solve the following main tasks: to make analysis of known ranking technologies; to adapt the chosen approach  to the settled task of building the analysis system and promotion of web sites; to give recommendations about creating of internet resource depending on keywords. The projected system should solve the following problems:
• collection of data about internet resources and their systematization;
• output of extra knowledge from already existent in the database;
• searching of additional information about the parameters we analyze;
• output of recommendations for resource promotion.
After website optimization, its owner can expect improvement of its positions in search engines, which will increase the number of visitors, what is crucial on the Internet. All results of the fulfilled work  solve the actual issue of creation ranking websites system.
As a result of the study it was found that for a successful process of the resource ranking necessary factors are: reliable informative of a website according to a theme, easy navigation, competitor analysis and optimization of website code. Moreover, a necessary condition is the location of backlinks on internal pages of a  resource, what will increase their specific weight, and, therefore – their rating. Using of the described measures increases the efficiency of the resource promotion with its possible entry in search engines top list. Further research will be focused on designing of separate ranking system modules and verification of their work.
THE MEANS STRUCTURE OF INFORMATION RESOURCES PROCESSING IN ELECTRONIC CONTENT COMMERCE SYSTEMS
A. Berko1, V. Vysotska2, L. Chyrun3
“Lviv Polytechnic” National university,
1Environment and Ecosystems Department,
2Information Systems and Networks Department,
3 Software Department
Some of principal problems of electronic content commerce and functional services of content processing are analyzed in the article. Proposed method gives an opportunity to form resources processing tools for electronic commerce systems so as implement subsystems for content formation, management and support.
Keywords – information resources, commercial content, content analysis, content monitoring, content search, electronic content commerce systems.
The basis for the design of the complex processing of information resources in electronic content commerce systems (ECCS) a three-level architecture client/server [1] was selected. The process of the content processing occurs on a “client-server application – database”. The request is processed by an application server that communicates with the database and payment system, and when you are connected to the business process of the organization communicates with the appropriate systems. From a technical point of view ECCS is a combination of Web-showcase as a front system and a trading system as the back-office. The main functions of ECCS are information service of the purchaser, order processing, payments, collection and analysis of statistical information.
Active development of the Internet has increased the need of operational data production/strategic nature and implementation of new forms of information services [1]. Documented information prepared in accordance with the needs of the users of an information product or commercial content and the main object of processes of electronic content commerce. The treatment benefits of information resources by means of ECCS stipulated by the growth in the volume of content on the Internet, the rapid development of electronic business, rapid growth of Internet accessibility, expanding of the set of information goods and services, increased demand for commercial content [1-9]. Principles and techniques of electronic content commerce are used when creating the online stores (selling eBooks, Software, video, music, movies, picture), on-line systems (newspapers, magazines, e-learning, publishing houses) and off-line distribution of content (copywriting services, Marketing Services Shop, RSS Subscription Extension), cloud storage and cloud computing. In this area are working the world's leading manufacturers of means of information resources processing, such as Apple, Google, Intel, Microsoft, Amazon, Android, Opera. Factors that hindered the implementation of information resources processing in ECCS associated primarily with the lack of scientifically based methods and tools for creating, administering and maintenance of content [1]. A number of scientific studies is dedicated to this area. In particular, in his works D. Lande researched and developed mathematical models of electronic information [2, 3, 6, 7]. G. Zipf proposed the empirical law of distribution of word frequencies in natural language. In the works of B. Boiko, S. McKeever, A. Rockley the models of content life cycle were describes. The methodology of content analysis was founded and developed by J. Kaiser, Glaser, H. Lasswell, O. Holsti. The EMC Corporation, IBM, Microsoft, Alfresco, Open Text, Oracle and SAP have developed specifications of Content Management Interoperability Services for Web services interface that enables interoperability between content management systems of e-business.
The ECCS software forms the interface with the buyer, and the system functionality based on the company needs. A potential customer has the opportunity to get answers to any question at any time (conditions of after-sales service, advice on the payment specifics, etc) that accompanies the process of buying/selling. Registration/authorization occurs before/after content selecting. In the first case you create a registration entry for ECCS customers for whom you are implementing a special scheme of service and payment. The possibility of registration after selecting the content allows the buyer to remain anonymous and saves time. The system protects the personal information of the buyer, using data transmission over secure channels. ECCS receives full information about Web site visitors that allows you to build marketing system in accordance with her. CMS allows you to collect a lot of statistics for analysis and use it operational (allow to identify areas of our site that are optimal for advertising information, automate the course of the advertising campaign). The publication of additional information is implemented using a separate application server (the area of publications) and electronic databases. ECCS must support the content lifecycle. ECCS involves using IT to communicate trading companies with retail customers, providing a full cycle of content sales. In ECCS the participants are much wider, except for users (sellers, buyers) it includes a number of financial institutions (the issuing Bank, the Bank of the seller/buyer, the acquiring Bank), computer centers, etc. Users are primarily individuals and institutions, social institutions, other types of consumers (legal entity). Sellers in ECCS are different organizational forms of the trade content. The communication network consists of providers, servers, processing centers. The delivery system is the Internet. All components interact in a system of relationships. This is the guarantee of stability and reliability of ECCS. The important elements of ECCS are organizational forms of electronic content commerce, having a single focus onto retail sales providing, but differ in the composition, structure, purpose in ECCS. ECCS provides the introduction, the selection of content categories, checkout, payments settlements, tracing the execution of the order. For the SECC operation has hardware and software components: Web-storefront (front office) on the Web server; electronic catalogues; payment system; CMS. Web-showcase has an active content, is based on the conventional static HTML files or dynamic with the display of the database content. Web-showcase contains information about the name, the profile, the status of the ECCS owner, the range of content and services, means of payment, discounts, guarantees, and terms of content delivery.
The issues of design, creation, implementation and maintenance of electronic content commerce is relevant, taking into account such factors as the lack of theoretical justification of standardized methods and the need for the standardization of software tools to process information resources. There is a mismatch between methods and means of the information processing resources and the principles of systems of electronic content commerce construction. One of the urgent tasks in the framework of this problem is the development of a common model structure of electronic content commerce.
The aim of this work is the definition of functional requirements to subsystems of processing of information resources in ECCS, such as the formation, management and support of commercial content. The subsystem of commercial content development provides facilitates the work of the ECCS author and moderators. The subsystem of content management facilitates the work of the administrators and moderators of ECCS, and supports a variety of functionality for users of these systems. The subsystem of content support makes work easier for ECCS analysts.
In article the general principles of structure construction of electronic content commerce systems, that are implemented formal models of information resources processing. The general architecture of ECCS, described in this work, is developed to facilitate the implementation stages of the life cycle of commercial content. General design principles of ECCS architecture are proposed to implement the information resources processing to reduce the production cycle, time saving and e-commerce empowering. In the work on the basis of the analysis of the ECCS basic tasks the tools, information technologies and software to build such systems are analyzed and summarized. The functional scheme of ECCS with subsystems of information processing resources is developed. The overall architecture of  ECCS is describes in detail, its tasks and principles of realization. The most important functional elements of the system and patterns of action of the main mechanisms according to GOST 24.204.80, GOST 24.201-79, 19.201-78, GOST 34.602-89, IEEE Std 1233, 1998 Edition, IEEE Std 830-1998 are described. The software for generation, management and content support are developed. The software implementation of SECC is described, including subsystems of information resources processing for the organization of e-commerce in online newspapers and online magazines.
 A FORMAL MODEL OF KNOWLEDGE REPRESENTATION IN ONTOLOGICAL TASKS MODELLING SYSTEM
Burov Y
National university “Lvivska polytechnica”,
Department “Information systems and networks”
In this paper we propose a formalization of ontology-based task execution modelling system. It is built using approach of algebraic systems theory. We show that proposed algebraic system based on multiple domains can be used for ontological models representation  of tasks and knowledge elucidation, storage and processing
Keywords – knowledge base, mathematical model, ontology, ontological model
Design and implementation of intelligent systems based on the formalization and reuse of knowledge is a promising area of practical application of artificial intelligence in software systems. At the core of such systems is a formalized representation of knowledge about the subject area, for example in the form of ontology. Ontology definition made by Gruber [1] as a specification of a conceptualization leaves open the selection of formal system and language for building such a specification. Not completely resolved are the problems of analisys of the ontological knowledge representation method itself, the definition of its inherent limitations and advantages. In order to resolve those problems, formal models for various aspects of ontological modeling should be built and analysed. So the study of ontological modelling method using mathematical models of ontologies and ontological modelling is important research area.
The use of formal methods for the study of systems that use information and knowledge has a long history. Most researchers use formal methods, based on the algebraic approach, set theory and first-order predicate logic [2, 3, 4]. Codd [2] developed relational algebra based on first-order predicate logic and algebra of sets which was used to build the theoretical foundations of relational databases, including database query language SQL. In [3] a general algebraic approach to the representation of relational database is developed, including algebraic database model, is analyzed a symmetry and equivalence relations in databases using multisort algebras. The author creates a model of the relational database in the form of algebraic structure using multisort algebras. Author performs an algebraic modeling of operations of databases union and decomposition.
In [4] an algebraic approach is used to modelling of concepts and concepts databases. Abstract data types are used to represent concepts and algebraic operations over data types are defined.
In [5] is proposed an algebraic approach to the construction of models and model transformations are defined as algebraic operations. The authors investigated the possibility of automating the complex inference process using algebraic models. As a result,  an executable meta-language was created with purpose to identify, build, evaluate and transform models of complex systems.
In [6] was proposed an approach to software systems construction using interpreted ontological models, the architecture and functioning of simulation system based on ontological models was described. However, the mathematical formalization of the proposed approach, including knowledge representation using ontologies and tasks models, relationships between them and the issues of practical implementation of modeling were not researched.
At present, the main research in ontology modeling is focused on declarative ontologies - domain ontologies, and general ontologies [7]. Task ontologies and ontological models constructed on the basis of them are studied insufficiently.
Historically, the tasks ontologies have been developed as a result of scientific analysis of tasks (task analysis). Methods of task analysis  are used to define and formalize all factors that affect or are used in the process of solving the problem by an expert. Such methods are widely used for designing interfaces of computer programs, in expert systems, decision support systems [8].
Task analysis is focussed on the analysis and specification of the components of common tasks and problems, determination of its structure and constraints. This allows the expert to better understand the problem, identify possible errors and omissions. Expert can simulate the process of problem solving and task execution and is able to evaluate the results of simulation in order to gain and pass the knowledge to other experts.
The area of task analysis has experienced a significant change with the advent of ontologies. It was proposed to use task ontologies to formalize the concepts and relations for the any given task[9]. Unlike other types of ontologies, such as general or domain ontology, task ontology
•    is created for some class of tasks;
•    the concept of task goal is important and its formalization mandatory
•    the concept of action is intoduced[10] in the context of task execution;
•    task ontology modelling environment provides execution (or simulation) of actions;
Tasks ontologies research area is closely related to conceptual modeling, because in the process of building of task ontology expert actually creates a formalized conceptual model for task[11]. An important aspect of both conceptual and ontological modeling is the interaction with domain expert who creates and validates an ontology.
In the process of tasks ontology research were implemented simulation environments allowing users to create and execute ontological models for specific classes of tasks. The most advanced of these environments is CLEPE (Conceptual level programming environment) [7]. However, available research is focussed on studying tasks ontologies for different tasks separately. Also, the problem of task ontologies mathematical modelling and formal representation is not resolved. The goal of this paper is to build a formal model of knowledge representation in intelligent systems based on tasks ontologies.
Research and development of mathematical models of intellectual systems using ontologies and task models allows to understand theoretical aspects of those systems, elucidate their constraints, provide validation and verification for systems of ontological models.   
APPLICATION OF THE OBJECT-ORIENTED APPROACH TO CONSTRUCTING DSS MODELS
O.M. Veres, Y.O. Veres
Lviv Polytechnic National University
This article describes an object-oriented approach of DSS modeling. Proposed and described a three-level architecture of conceptual DSS model. Analyzed the possibility of reusing components of various structure types. Described the principles of building a custom DSS by using reusable components.
Keywords – object-oriented approach, architecture, structure, model, decision making, Decision Support System.
One of the current managers problems is understanding market opportunities and risks and in time decisions which improve useing of corporate resources. Decision Support Systems (DSS)   a computer system designed to improve the efficiency of decision-making, helps individuals who make a decision to use models and data to solve semi-structured and unstructured decision-making problems [1]. DSS   is a collection of intelligent information applications and tools which are used to manipulation and data analysis and giving the results of such analysis to the end user. Modern DSS allows to predict the impact of decisions on further business development.
The main problems which were found in earl DSS projects, are large consumer cost and adaptation complexity to rapid changes in the decision of organization support requirements. Rapid progress in information technology contributed to the research degree of universality as a basis for flexible and rapid development of DSS.
Since the late 1970s, the major progress trends are DSS generators and generalized model management system (MMS). In both cases, the basis for the versatility of DSS are functionally-oriented models.
Easy and fast growth of computer systems is not the only problem of DSS area. For example, it does not differ from the basic tasks of software development. In this field, reuse is considered as a key to improving the quality and productivity of software development, with the main accent on the potential contribution of object-oriented (OO) approach [2].
Examining existing conceptual DSS models, there are approaches based on usage the ideology of information systems, artificial intelligence, and an instrumental approach [1].
Perspective today is usage of the object-oriented paradigm to build a conceptual DSS model. Possibility of reuse is considered the key for achieving productivity and software quality. DSS - a systems designed to improve decision-making, but information technology can have a significant impact on decision making in the presence of methods that allow you to quickly and easily develop DSS. DSS development process can be made more effective by using domain-specific reusable components that positively impact on quality of this DSS. To achieve these goals special is the contribution of object-oriented (OO) paradigm.
Structures - a complex reusable units, consisting of a number of classes that are specifically designed for improving and using as a group. The structure [3] can be considered as high-level application or architecture of subsystem that consists of a set of classes that are specifically designed to be improved and used as a group. The structure is a total solution for developing applications in a particular area (eg, image editors, operating systems) that can be customized according to the problem. Domain-specific components, in which structures are used to represent classes of decision problems like prototype of decision-making elements, is a basis for solving problems of DSS development and design [3]. This approach, like a simulation tool, designed for decision maker (the person who makes decisions). The structure is considered as a general model of decision making for a particular class of problems that can be configured through the process of implementation to provide features available decision problem. Specific models can be built by selection, adaptation and problem domain concepts combination.
Unsolved before aspects of the main problem. The model-oriented DSS as a tool to support decision making managers are limited. Model development as usually carried out by specialists, and managers often feel reluctance to use models that they do not fully understand, and in development which they did not participate. It is reasonable to develop simulation environment for users who are not simulation experts using reusable components.
The main objective of the paper is development DSS conceptual model and its components guided by the object-oriented paradigm. The approach is designed for professionals (ie software developers with OO mechanism knowledge) that have to create a DSS through structures reuse.
To achieve this goal conducted the analysis of the application of object-oriented approach to quickl and easy DSS designing which is based on various structures types reusing. Proposed a three-tier DSS conceptual model architecture which reflects reusable components evolution, which have a different nature, namely decision making situation structure, decision making model structure, image construction structure and user interface development structure. Describe reusable components types and sequence custom DSS composing. This approach can be considered as higher level structures designing, which consist of lower level structures and recommendations with these structures usage to develop specific DSS.
Further research will focus on methods research, models and tools to more effectively support the overall model development, namely the knowledge extraction methods from separate areas and structure storages.
AN IMPROVED METHOD FOR SKELETONIZATION OF TWO-DIMENSIONAL REGIONS THAT TAKES INTO ACCOUNT BOUNDARY FEATURES
M.Davydov
Lviv Polytechnic National University
The problem of two-dimensional area skeletonization that takes into account boundary features is considered. A modification of Zhang-Suen parallel thinning algorithm is proposed. The modification utilizes boundary tracking for boundary features detection. Skeletons that were obtained by means of the proposed method were found to be persistent to region rotation. The method was utilized for dactyl images skeletonization and processing.
Keywords - skeletonization, thinning, dactyl recognition
The topological skeleton of a two-dimensional region plays an important role in object representation and recognition. Skeleton-based models are successfully used for solving handwriting analysis [1], flexible object comparison [2], detection of pedestrians [3] tasks. The models can also be utilized to identify elements of a sign language and determine the position of the human body [4] as well.
The main property of the skeleton is the preservation of the original object's shape and topological structure. However, skeletonization algorithms are sensitive to noise and the object boundary deformation what can seriously influence the skeletonization result.
The skeleton of a closed two-dimensional region is a set of all points of the region, each of which has at least two closest points equidistant to the region boundary of the region [5]. The skeleton can be represented as a set of segments. There are two classes of skeleton construction methods. The former utilizes a set of polygons to represent a region boundary and the latter utilizes a raster representation of a region.
Methods based on a raster representation are called the skeletonization or thinning methods. The skeleton obtained is represented as a plurality of pixels and can be considered the approximation of a two-dimensional skeleton of a region. It should be obtained one pixel thick and must be connected if the processed region is connected.
Methods based on a polygon representation provide stable skeletonization results, but the known implementations [6, 7] perform slowlier in the case of non-convex regions with holes. They sometimes lead to incorrect results due to the imprecision of floating-point arithmetic.
The 2-dimensional region processing is performed in two stages. The special boundary pixels search is performed in the first stage. The skeleton of the region is built in the second stage. The special pixels found before are used in this stage.
Because there is no strict mathematical definition of a special boundary pixel, let us introduce a heuristic function whose value will indicate whether a pixel of the boundary generates a visible angle or not. A variety of methods for evaluating discrete curvature can be used to construct such a function [13]. Among the indexes that can be quickly evaluated there is the angle constructed from a current pixel to pixels of the boundary, taken at an equal number of steps (Fig. 4). The number of steps that is best suited to solve a particular problem class depends on the processed area size and possible irregularities. A larger number of steps are used to ignore bigger contour irregularities.
The Zhang-Suen thinning algorithm was improved by adding a procedure that identifies special boundary points. A stable to rotation result was obtained by means of the developed algorithm. The method performed well on basic geometrical figures and hand shapes from the Ukrainian Sign Language dactyl alphabet.
The study of the skeletons obtained showed that these skeletons do not correspond to fingers because the thresholded region does not contain any information about a hand illumination that is necessary for locating the fingers. The developments of methods, taking into account the illumination factors will be the subject for further researches.
INFLUENCE OF SPECIALIZED WEB COMMUNITIES ON THE FUNCTIONING OF EDUCATIONAL INSTITUTIONS
A.Shiling, P.Zhezhnych
National University "Lviv Polytechnic"
Department of Information Systems and Networks
Nowadays the Internet has become an integral part of society, a favorable environment for the development of many social processes. The problem of the impact of the global computer network to various aspects of society is very relevant and discussed by experts of different disciplines.
The rapid development of the Internet has led to the flow of modern life in the Web space. To date, the basic process of communication in today's youth is Web communities (social networks, specialized forums). Here members share their thoughts, emotions, or fall under the influence of foreign ideas, support or reject a position. This communication plays a significant role in the lives of users and analysis of the results can be used by various institutions, including schools for the planning of educational services, including the information needs of members of Web communities.
It is known [16], virtual communities form a fundamental part of today web space. On the one hand, companies and enterprises, such communities tend to play a big difference in terms of idea generation, customer support, problem solving, etc. On the other hand, their management and organization can be very expensive and time consuming, and therefore, their owners and managers interested in the fact that these communities continue to thrive, and to their users to remain active and productive.
The Internet can be used efficiently in education technology Web 2.0, features which are chronological organization of information, the availability of archives to access previous messages, as well as interactivity (receiving feedback through comments from consumers of educational services and, as a consequence, direct them reaction universities).
Areas of study web communities are diverse, as are interlaced in itself all aspects of society.
In the current research [1-3, 13, 15, 17] scholars consider the communication process (K.Miller); forming web communities and processing of content (H.Rheingold); development of methods and means of personalization of content in the WWW (Berezko EL).
Methods for building an information society, social networks on the WWW gender and age differences in language Internet communication explore in their works Peleshchyshyn AM and Fedushko SS [8-10, 12]. With a unique source of information web forums as the most popular type of web community plays an important role in the communication of teachers and students in the education system [4] Despite the fact that these areas of research have begun to develop relatively recently, they are important and relevant in assessing the impact of web-based communities functioning of educational institutions.
Purpose - to examine the impact of web-based communities on the functioning of educational institutions.
To achieve this goal were mooring the following tasks:
- Analyze the features of the architecture and operation of web-based communities;
- Classify members of virtual communities;
- To investigate the impact of process web communities on the functioning of educational institutions, namely universities.
This paper analyzes the architecture of virtual community, the classification of the content of specialized educational web communities (for example, a web forum), and consequently the classification of members of these communities based personalization data. So, one of the hot topics today is the study of the influence of virtual communities on the functioning of educational institutions and the possibility of using the results for the planning of educational institutions.
ALGORITHMS AND SOFTWARE ENVIRONMENT OF TIME FORMAT NUMBERS ARITHMETIC FOR THE AVR FAMILY MICROCONTROLLER
V.M. Zayats, V.R. Kolosov
National University "Lviv Politechnic", Lviv
General ecology and ecology-informational systems department
The method of implementation of operations of addition and subtraction of numbers, presented in the time-format is considered. The algorithm and program is developed by the С-language for microcontrollers of AVR family.
Keywords: arithmetic operations, time format, real-time algorithm, program.
Digital devices usually execute operations on transformation of information in the binary scale of notation. But often there is a necessity to process information in the time- format (for example, readed from real-time clocks). The most widespread operations are operations of addition and subtraction of numbers. Authors of similar operations or suggest to take advantage of existent additions (for example, Microsoft Excel [1]), or application of variables of type of string [2], or the use in quality of intermediate BCD-format [3].
The purpose of work is development of algorithms, that realization of programmatic facilities for implementation of arithmetic operations of addition and subtraction of numbers, given in the time-format (gg:hh:ss) and to confirm expedience of his appendix to microcontroller of AVR-family [4-7].
Review of literary sources. AVR-microcontrollers of are development and product of firm Atmel. It is family of universal, 8-bit microcontrollers of RISC-architecture (the program and information are in different address spaces) with different built-in peripheral units (ADC, receiver-transmitter, TWI-module, counters, SPI and a number of other devices depending on a model). Made on technology of 0,35 µm., work with a clock rate from 16 MHz. A firm ATMEL produces families of 8-bit microcontrollers of two types: tiny and mega. The microcontrollers of tiny have FLESH-ROM for 1 and 2 KB in a corps on 8-20 pins, and microcontrollers of mega accordingly: FLESH-ROM of 8-128 KB in a corps on by 28-64 pins, can work for a voltage feed a 2-6 volt. Is possible to switch them in the modes of economy consumption of energy by a programmatic way.
At the end of 1996 year the first experimental microcontroller of AT90S1200 was produced, and in the second half of 1997 the Atmel corporation began the mass production of new family of microcontrollers, carrying out here them publicity and technical support.
The basic versions of controllers are such:
•    AT (mega / tiny) xxx is a base version.
•    ATxxxL are versions of controllers which work at reduced (Low) feed voltage (2,7 V).
•    ATxxxV are versions of controllers which work on low feed voltage (1,8 V).
•    ATxxxP is low consumed versions (to 100 nA in the Power-down mode), picopower technology (announced in July 2007) [4] is applied, by the number of pins and functional capabilities compatible with previous versions.
In [5] functioning principles, architecture feature, and programming technique of Atmel AVR microcontrollers are expounded. Ready methods of programming the basic functions of modern microelectronic apparatus are showed: from a reaction on pressure of the button or construction of dynamic indication to difficult protocols of record of data in external memory or features of connecting of real time clock. The special attention gives the data exchange of microelectronic devices and the personal computer, examples of the programs are given. The features of AVR modern models and concomitant microcircuits of the last years of issue are taken into account in a book.
All design phases of microcontrollers devices are showed in [6]. The special attention is spared connection of the offered schematics with software of designed device. The electric charts of devices are offered to the head in each - controllers on the base of AVR-microcontrollers, and also a few programs which determine functioning of these controllers. Basic applied applications microcontrollers of this class.
Next to base AVR-microcontrollers exist other technologies of construction of these devices develop successfully. So exhaustive description of base series of AVR-microcontrollers family from a company Atmel, built on the base of progressive RISC-architecture with application of programmable flesh-EPROM memory is given in [7]. In addition, programming of microcontrollers of this series is thoroughly examined in assembly language, and also environment of adjusting of AVR-Studio and hardware-software set of STK200.
Two algorithm and program variants of implementation of addition and deduction operations of numbers, presented in the time format are developed. The program is written with the C language for the AVR family microcontroller. Performance of algorithm of operations implementation was analysed and researchd by the offered method. An algorithm enables quickly to execute numbers operations.
The first program gives a long code, but occupies a less place in memory. Second - vice versa. At the choice of variant it follows to take into account a program clearness also.
STOCHASTIC GAME MODEL OF THE DATA CLUSTERING
P.A.Kravets
Lviv polytechnic National university,
Chair of information systems and networks
The stochastic game model of the data clustering under the influence of noise is offered. Adaptive rerrurent method and algotithm of stochastic game solving are developed. Computer modelling of game of noisy data clustering is executed. The parameter influences on convergence of stochastic game method of the data clustering are studied. The analysis of received results is realised.
Keywords – data clustering, stochastic game model, adaptive game method.
The solving of problems of the intellectual analysis and visualisation of the data, pattern recognition and grouping, extraction of knowledge and information search, classification of objects can be executed by means of  of the cluster analysis methods. Findings of groups of similar objects in sets are the purpose of the cluster analysis. Unlike the discriminant analysis where classes are obviously set, the cluster analysis carries out a definition of the cluster structures [1, 2].
The cluster analysis uses in chemistry, biology, medicine, sociology, pedagogics, psychology, philology, marketing, processing of signals, pattern recognition, scientific discipline of documentation, computer science, scientific work and other areas of human activity for a data structure in the form of classes for the purpose of their ordering and the group analysis [3–10].
Clustering is a division of set of objects into subsets depending on their similarity. The allocated subsets are called as clusters. Elements of one cluster have the general properties. Elements of different clusters considerably differ among themselves.
The general scheme of data clustering is the such:
1)    Allocation of characteristics of objects;
2)    Definition of the metrics of objects;
3)    Division of set of objects on clusters;
4)    Interpretation of results clustering.
In this article the new method of the data clustering, based on results of the theory of stochastic games is offered. The developed and investigated game method (6) – (8) provides the problem solving of the noise data clustering. For this purpose each point of set of the data is considered as the separate player with possibility of learning and adaptation to system uncertainty. Pure strategy of players is the choice of one of the fixed quantity clusters. After choice end of clusters calculation of corresponding losses behind criteria of minimisation of total distance between points of clusters, strategy of players created by a free choice occurs all players. The received losses are used by players for reorganisation of dynamic vectors of the mixed strategies taken as a principle of the random mechanism of generating of pure strategies of players. The method of reorganisation of the mixed strategy (6) constructed on the basis of stochastic approximation provides minimisation of functions of average losses on unit simplexes.
The problem solving of the data clustering is carried out during the decision of stochastic game in real time on the basis of gathering of the current information and its adaptive processing.
The developed program model confirms convergence of an adaptive game method (6) – (8) during the problem solving of the data clustering. Efficiency of a game method is estimated by means of characteristic functions of average losses and average norm of the mixed strategies. Convergence of a game method depends on dimension of stochastic game, intensity of noises and parities of parameters of a game method. At growth of quantity of players and intensity of noises speed and efficiency game of  the data clustering decrease. Reliability of the received results proves to be true repeatability of values of the calculated characteristics of stochastic game for different sequences of random variables.
The offered game method (6) – (8) of the data clustering belongs to a class of methods which are based on processing of reactions of environment on action of agents, and has rather low, sedate speed of convergence that is connected with aprioristic uncertainty of system. Information gathering is carried out in the course of learning by adaptive reorganisation of vectors of the mixed strategy proportionally to values of current losses. This lack is overcome by high speed of modern computer aids and possibility of paralleling a game problem. Unresolved in this work there was a question of independent definition of quantity of clusters during the   stochastic game solving of the noise data clustering.
RECONSTRUCTION OF GIVEN SEQUENCE OF IMPULSES BASED ON MULTIINPUT SPIKE NEURON
Y.M. Romanyshyn1,2, S.R. Petrytska1
1Lviv Polytechnic National University,
Ukraine, Lviv, 12, Bandery str.
2University of Warmia and Mazury in Olsztyn, Poland
The problem of construction of idealizing sequence of spikes as the weighted sum of input sequences of spikes, that is important for learning procedure of spike neural network on the basis of methods of linear algebra with the use of idealizing impulses with a zero duration and single amplitude and conception of space of sequences of spikes is considered. It is proved that inner product of the weighted time series of spikes generates the proper metric which can be used for the estimation of neighborhood of two sequences. For determination of weight coefficients a least squares method is used. Resultant spike sequence is formed with the use of fuzzy numbers. Two examples of approximation of the sequence of spikes are demonstrated.
Keywords – spike neural network, spike-sequences, method of linear algebra, spike learning.
Spike neural networks belong to the third generation of neural networks in which information is encoded by time between impulses (spikes) [1, 2]. Therefore the learning procedures of such networks are significantly different from the learning procedures of neural networks of previous generations with the threshold and continuous activation functions. Among the learning procedures of spike neural networks it can be distinguished [3]: 1) gradient methods (SpikeProp), close to the similar ones for neural networks with continuous activation functions; 2) statistical methods; 3) methods of linear algebra; 4) methods that are based on evolutionary strategies; 5) method ReSuMe and others. However, despite the large number of publications on this topic, some questions concerning the learning procedures of spike neural networks are not investigated enough.
In the learning procedures of spike-neural networks it is necessary to determine the weights such a way that approximate given spike sequence by the weighted sum of the input impulses sequences. To solve this problem at idealized spike-sequences introduction of metric, the method of least squares to determine weights, the procedure of transition to fuzzy numbers and on the back from fuzzy numbers to clear were used. Results of algorithm are illustrated by two examples approximation of given sequence of 10 impulses by 20 and 100 spike sequences.
DATASPACE ARCHITECTURE AND MANAGE ITS COMPONENTS CLASS PROJECTION
Natalya Shakhovska
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Information systems and networks department
Constructed architecture data space. Specifics debug operation data space as a complex system.
Keywords: space data translator requests metalanguage
Big data is very popular in last year, because prognoses information count in 2015 may be 1024. The companies made decisions by transaction data from relation databases. By the way, without this data we have nontraditional unstructured or semi-structured data such as web-server logs, social networks, e-mail servers, photos. They can be used for useful information getting. That’s why we must work with several formats of data [3]. Data space is block vector. It consists of the set of information products of subject area. Those products are structured on three blocks: structured, semi-structured and unstructured data. We have the set of operation and predicates on this blocks and its elements. In thesis there is projected dataspace architecture as information technologies for working with big data.
1.    In this paper there is projected dataspace architecture and instrumentation tools for practical realization.
2.    There are chased program tools for variant data integration realization.
3.    The main classes’ specification is described.
4.    There are described language tools and user interface realization.
DESIGN AND ANALYSIS FEATURES OF GENERALIZED ELECTRONIC CONTENT-COMMERCE SYSTEMS ARCHITECTURE
V.A. Vysotska1, L.B. Chyrun1, L.V. Chyrun2
Lviv Polytechnic National University,
1Information Systems and Networks Department
2 Software Department
In the given article content lifecycle model in electronic commerce systems is proposed. The model describes the processes of information resources processing in the electronic content commerce systems and simplifies the content automation management technology. In the paper the main problems of e-commerce and content function management services are analyzed.
Keywords – information resources, content, content management system, content lifecycle, electronic content commerce system.
This article describes the features, lifecycle phases and commerce content services management. The detailed analysis of content management systems and prospects of electronic content commerce systems implementation is made. A detailed classification of content commerce systems and electronic content commerce systems is made. Business processes, content flows, tools, content management systems models are analysed. Methods and tools of content management, their advantages and disadvantages are described. Modern Internet progress causes increasing needs as in productive factor information so strategic resource information, and realization of new information service forms [1-15]. Documented information prepaired in accordance with users needs and appointed to satisfy them is an information product or commercial content [2]. Actions for providing users with commercial content are information service. The Internet market is a totality of economic, law, organizational and program relations for sale/purchase of information products and services between developers/providers and users [2, 6-9].
Term content or filling has few interpretations according to the direction of application [1-2]. For the computer science branch – it’s informatively meaningful filling (for example: graphics, multimedia) of the information resource [2]; variety of all values, operated by information system [2]; certain generalized notion of data without pre-defined structure [2, 9]. Respectively, information resource – is a totality of structured/non structured content arrays in information system, for example: libraries, archives/repositories, funds, portals, directories/vocabularies, data banks/bases/warehouses, electronic commerce systems etc. [1-2]. Commerce content notion is determined as information resources contents in electronic content commerce system (ECCS); ECCS business process object (for example: article, software, book etc.); structured variety, logically completed information, which is an object of relations between user and ECCS; data set without pre-defined structure, that exist only in electronic form; information of commercial appointment, indivisible in time; main factor of activity area formation, ECCS functionong and appointment [1-2].
Made an analysis of commercial content formation methods, popular content lifecycle models were researched and content management services standartized, which gives possibility to determine requirements for creating optimal commertial content lifecycle. Researched Internet technologies for construction of service oriented electronic commerce system, what gave possibility to classify electronic commerce systems and electronic content commerce systems. Reviewed in detail information resources and production processes of electronic commerce systems, what gives possibility to develop optimal content lifecycle and typical electronic content commerce system architecture. Alanysed content management technology in electronic commerce, what gives possibility to develop formal models, unified methods and software information resources processing in electronic content commerce systems. From system approach position made an analysis of modern methids and tools of electronic content commerce systems designing, modelling and realization, also justified necessity and feasibility of unified methods and information resources processing software creation.
FORMATION PECULIARITIES OF ELECTRONIC DOCUMENTATION IN THE TOURISM SPHERE
P.I. Zhezhnych, O.O. Soprunyuk
Lviv Polytechnic National University
Information Systems and Networks department
The article describes the importance of electronic documentation use in tourism sphere, the need for its automation processing in order to provide rapid interaction between the travel agency and the tourism information product consumer, the principles of quality management in the formation process of tourism documentation on the basis of analysis and generalization of TQM are highlighted, the formation process of tourism documentation in the form of data flow diagram DFD is generally described
Key words – tourism documentation, electronic documentation, automation processing, quality standarts
At the modern stage of the information society development, in particular, of the tourism industry, the problem of tourism services administration taking in consideration the needs of the tourism product consumers on the basis of the monitoring and analysis of their requests, demands and proposals becomes more and more urgent [27]. Therefore, the tourism organizations must continuously improve the system of the tourism services provision, thus strengthening the position on the tourism market and increasing the demand for tourism services with the attraction of investment capital in the tourism infrastructure.
Since the tourism organizations process a large amount of information, they have to deal with the documents of various types and purposes. Tourism documentation, as the information product, which quality depends on the quality of tourism services provision, is an important criteria for the management effectiveness of the various tourism processes [15]. It is necessary to use quality standards of the documents management in order to improve the tourism services quality [35, 36]. It allows effectively generate documentation processes, develop a methodology for the documentation management and its implementation in the tourism organizations [21, 22, 44].
It is reasonable to transform documents into electronic form regarding the increasing role of documentation and the need for rapid documents processing. That is why, the electronic tourism documentation is more and more often used in the tourism business [11, 12].
Electronic documentation should be introduced at all stages of the tourism companies operation with the aim of speeding up the registration and processing of documents, formation of the documentation, the structuring of routes and their optimization [11, 12].
The documents must be processed promptly, centrally, organizing an effective system of electronic documentation management. Effective work with the electronic documentation ensures the success of the entire tourism organization. That is why, the problem of electronic documentation management is urgent and requires detailed examination [3, 15].
A characteristic feature of tourism information is a need for its bringing to the user, that is realization of the interaction between the travel agency and the consumer, tourism information product user.
Processing of the information in the dialog mode should be carried out on the basis of the standard operations and methods of achieving the goal. The sum of all operations forms the technological process, which can be called a man-machine system.
As a rule, the information processing is carried out in a decentralized way in the places of primary data formation, where automated workplaces of the service management experts are organized. Information processing should be carried out not only independently, but in the computer model in accordance with the machine program with the printout on paper or display on the screen.
The interaction between the travel agency and the consumer of tourism information product provides the exchange of information in real-time. A consumer has a goal to obtain results in the process of request making. Tourism information systems should meet the requirements of simple user adaptation to the system with the output on screen of the help information. Automation of the process of the documentation ordering and its creation plays an important role in tourism.
Today many researchers in the whole world are interested in the question of the tourism services quality. They create a theoretical basis, carry out the analysis of the quality services indicators. Authors describe the functioning of the quality systems, develop new algorithms of quality evaluation, insist on the need to assess the quality of tourism services, taking into account the specificity of the tourism organizations activity [8, 13, 16, 17, 25, 32, 33, 39].
In particular, scientists are interested in the issues related to the creation, development and routing of electronic documents [2, 20]. Researchers consider the problem of the electronic document circulation introduction, the stages of the electronic documentation data processing [16, 40, 56]. Great attention is paid to the description of the automation process of the electronic document management, its peculiarities and principles of its functionality[1, 4, 7, 9, 11].
However, it is necessary more carefully to consider and evaluate problems of ensuring the tourism services quality, which can be solved with the help of a proper functioning of the electronic information exchange system.
Despite a rather wide range of publications on questions of creation and introduction of the electronic documentation, in conditions of intense society informatization, these problems remain extremely topical, in particular, in the sphere of tourism services. The aim of the article is to investigate the peculiarities of the electronic tourism documentation and establish the role of automation of its formation, to highlight the principles of quality management in the formation process of tourism documentation on the basis of analysis and generalization of TQM (Total Quality Management), to present the formation process of tourism documentation in the form of data flow diagram DFD.
A characteristic feature of tourism electronic documents based on its formation by the information extraction from the open web-resources is the ability to ensure the interaction between the travel agency and the consumer of the tourism information product. Processing of tourism information must comply with the ISO standards, as well as the quality management system of TQM. in the formation process of tourism documentation the most important among the principles of quality management on the basis of analysis and generalization of TQM are: orientation on the consumer, system approach to management, constant improvement of the work, making decisions based on the facts. Use of tourism electronic documentation gives the opportunity to automate the processing of documents in a single information space. The formation process of tourism documentation is presented in the form of data flow diagram DFD Automation of electronic document management provides fast transfer of a  large volume of information within information channels without loss of credibility and integrity of the authentic data, that significantly increases the efficiency of tourism activities.
USING THE TEXT RELATIONSHIP MAP (TRM) FOR AUTOMATIC SUMMARIZATION
Kanishcheva O.V.
National Technical University “Kharkiv Polytechnic Institute”
This paper is devoted to the use of statistical TFIDF, TLTF and Text Relationship Map (TRM) methods for automatic construction of abstracts for the Russian and Ukrainian languages. These methods are implemented using C++ software programming language in Borland Builder 6.0 and databases created in Microsoft Access.
Keywords – automatic processing of natural language, automatic abstracting, TFIDF, TLTF, Text Relationship Map (TRM).
The civilization development is a reason of steady increase of volume of the knowledge accumulated by humanity. Millions of paperbacks and manuscripts contain information on different subjects, different fields of scientific and cultural life, but they are more and more often replaced by electronic media. Now there are already electronic versions of many books, popular printed editions appear both in a print and electronic format, the amount of online documents is increasing exponentially. As a result there are many problems appearing, such as information classification, analysis, search, and their solution is related to natural language intellectual processing on a large scale.
Artificial intelligence development as a scientific field became possible only after creation of the computer (in the 1950s and the 1960s), when it gathered together mathematicians (theorists and practitioners), psychologists and experts in robotic engineering, electronics, cybernetics, for them to teach the computer to think and behave as a human (natural intellect). At the same time, another scientific field appeared that was named as computational linguistics (CL). As a scientific field, it was supposed to teach the computer to understand and process a human language (natural language texts).
Despite a lot of theoretical developments, the problem of creation of effective industrial systems within the framework of each of directions determining the modern development level of such major scientific and technical industry as informatics is exceptionally important up to the present moment.
Automated data processing involves automatic abstracting and annotating of scientific and technical texts. As there is no use keeping everything in electronic format, that it is done by a man, in fact technical descriptions become antiquated, it is enough to leave only external information about them: author, theme, that it is done. It concerns streams of information even more, it is necessary to sort them in different arrays according common themes and sources they are from, it is necessary to compress information content, formalize records, placing them in the knowledge bases where you can obtain them and give out answers for queries from. This class of problems is one of most difficult among the other tasks of automated texts processing, as it needs deep linguistic analysis that is supposed to educe the most informative and important parts of text content. And it is in the area of difficult intellectual systems.
The simplest method of text compression is an automatic extraction of those sentences, that contain one or more keywords or word-combinations that are so called "climaxes" in text semantic information distribution. These sentences displayed on the screen in the order of their following form a document machine report or annotation.
An annotation and a report effectively provide a rapid exchange of new scientific and technical information, these are them that substantially abbreviate time of specialists spent on information processing. Annotating and reviewing is supposed to reduce the volume of information generator to the maximum and to substantially keep its basic content.
Language redundance and absence of univocal correspondence between the content and the form of a language piece of work are the fundamental basis for such information compression. At reviewing a report gets rid of everything second-rate and illustrative, a basic idea of what explains is kept only.
An annotation and a report are supposed to give only the most substantial information about new achievements of science and technology. If a report and an annotation interest a reader, and the information in them is not enough for them, it is always possible to find the original data source after indicated bench-mark data in them and get necessary information on a full scale. Thus, an annotation and a report perform an important function: they carry out systematization of necessary to the user information.
A report and an annotation belong to the secondary documentary scientific information sources. These are documents in which information is reported about primary documents. Information processing includes the process of study of every primary document or their complex, for example, a collection of articles, and preparation of the information that represents the most essential elements of these documents. On the basis of secondary documents use informing editions are completed, such as, abstract journals, reference materials, scientific translations etc. An annotation and report compress original sources in fundamentally different ways. While an annotation only enumerates the questions from the original source, not covering these questions content, a report not only enumerates all these questions but also focuses attention on the content of each of them. It is possible to say, that an annotation reports only what the original source is about, and a report informs about what is written in relation to each of lighted up in an original source and a report informs of that is written concerning each of the questions covered in the original source. Thus, an annotation is only a pointer for original sources selection and cannot replace them, while a report can fully replace an original source, as it reflects the material content. As it was said above, both for an annotation and for a report a certain degree of rolling up of information on the basis of its previous analysis is characteristic.
An annotation (from lat. annotatio meaning “a remark”) is a short description of a printed work or manuscript content. It is a compressed to the maximum description of the original source. It covers the publication topic in a generalized way without the complete covering of its content. An annotation gives an answer to a question, what the primary information source is about.
According to content and intended function annotations can be referral and recommendatory. Referral annotations cover document subjects and give certain information about it, but it does not give a critical estimation. Recommendatory annotations contain a document estimation from the point of view of its serviceableness for the certain category of readers.
According to the scope of the annotated document content and reader serviceableness general and specialized annotations are distinguished. General annotations characterize a document in general and created for a wide range of readers. Specialized annotations cover expose certain document aspects that interest a domain expert. They can be quite short, consisting only a few words or small phrases, and unfolded to 20-30 lines, but also in this case, unlike a report, they give only the most substantive provisions and conclusions of a document in a condense form. Only substantial signs of the document content are specified in an annotation, id est those that allow to educe its scientific and practical value and novelty, to distinguish it from the others, similar to it on subjects and serviceableness.
While doing an annotation one must not retell documents content (conclusions, recommendations, actual material). It is necessary keep to a minimum the use of complicated expressions, pronouns and demonstratives.
General requirements for writing annotations are the following:
1. Sphere an annotation intended use. The scope plenitude and content of the finishing part depend on it.
2. The volume of annotation must be within 500 to 2000 printed signs.
3. Observance of structure logic that can differ from the statement order in the original.
4. Observance of language features of an annotation that includes the following :
•    covering the conceptual issues of the original in a simple, clear and short way;
•    avoiding repeating, including the article title;
•    observing the unity of terms and reductions;
•    using generally accepted reductions;
•    using impersonal constructions as "to be examined..., analysed..., reported". and the passive voice;
•    avoiding to use adjectives, adverbs, introductory words that do not influence the content;
•    using certain summarizing words and word-combinations that provide logical connections between separate parts of expressions as "as shown", "… however", "thus,…" etc.
An annotation content:
Introduction is a bibliographic description.
Basic part is a list of basic problems mentioned in the publication.
Finishing part is a short description and estimation, intended use of the annotated work (who this publication is addressed to).
Thus, an annotation is a short generalized sketch (description) of a book or an article text. Before the annotation text bench-mark data is given (author, name, place and time of edition) in a nominative form.
The task of the automatic abstracting is a task of extraction of a text content. There are many software instruments for creation a document report. However, they do not always give necessary for the user result, that is why automatic abstracting remains one of priority tasks of artificial intelligence.
The review of literature, analysis of methods and approaches to the problem of the automatic abstracting, shows that to solve this task it is important to select keywords, word-combinations, informatively-saturated sentences of a text, artificially built sentences characterizing the basic text content.
Existing methods and models for creation of an automatic report were analyzed. A review of the existing industrial systems carrying out the automatic abstracting functions is done. Thus, undertaken studies allowed to develop a mathematical model of an automatic report creation for Russian and Ukrainian full-text documents, that is based on the use of latently-semantic analysis methods (LSA – Latent Semantic Analysis), a map of text relations (ТRM – Техt Relationship Мар) and TFIDF metrics (Term Frequency Inverse Document Frequency) to extract keywords from a text.
On the basis of this model an built algorithm was developed, it was realized by means of С++ language programming system in the environment of Borland Builder 6.0 and a database created in Microsoft Access.
OVERVIEW OF THE UKRAINIAN LANGUAGE RESOURCES WITHIN THE MULTILINGUAL EUROPEAN MULTEXT-EAST PROJECT, V.4
Natalia Kotsyba,
Faculty of „Artes Liberales”, Warsaw University, 69, Nowy Świat str., Warsaw, 00-046, Poland
The article presents an overview of computational resources for the Ukrainian language within a multilingual European MULTEXT-East project (MTE, http://nl.ijs.si/ME/V4) freely available for researchers since May 2010, including a formal representation of morphosyntactic specifications consisting of 1239 unique grammatical tags in the XML, TEI-5 compatible, format and a morphosyntactic lexicon covering over 200000 wordforms with lemmas and morphosyntactic codes.
Key words – computational language resources, NLP, TEI, Text Encoding Initiative, standards, Ukrainian language, morphosyntactic specifications, morphosyntactic lexicon.
Due to historical reasons, developing of computational resources for the Ukrainian language was discouraged in the times of their rapid growth for widely used world languages like English or Russian, which is the reason why at present there is still no solid computational linguistic base for Ukrainian in terms of both materials and original theoretical works, cf. [14:4]. One of the consequences of this situation is a continuing strong orientation at the modern Russian corpus linguistics, which, notwithstanding the strong post-Soviet scientific heritage, itself is largely influenced by the developments of English linguistic resources. Hence, there is a considerable gap between the modern Ukrainian corpus and computational linguistics and the most recent work in this field done in the Western world. This is the reason why worldwide initiatives involving Ukrainian are beneficial for following good practices in the field, and knowledge about them should be disseminated among present and potential researchers. Thus, the purpose of the article is to present to a wide audience the existing linguistic resources for Ukrainian developed within a recent international project in a possibly accessible way, shedding also the light on some linguistic nuances and the preceding work in theoretical linguistics that led to taking certain decisions connected with the linguistic organization of the specifications, and encourage their further use by researchers.
The task of computational morphosyntactic description of Ukrainian has been approached by several researchers/research groups both from the theoretical and practical perspectives. A system of 383 synthetic morphosyntactic codes is used in the National Corpus of Ukrainian and is well documented [15]. It is based on the Ukrainian Grammatical Dictionary developed by Igor V. Shevchenko in the 90-ties of the XX-th century. Unfortunately, the morphosyntactic information is still not available for search in the corpus due to unresolved disambiguation in the texts. Another corpus of Ukrainian [mova.info] enables online search with morphosyntactic restrictions but they are not documented at all, at least at the time this paper is being written. Neither of the two above mentioned corpus creating initiatives makes any tagging resources available to a wider public for individual tagging purposes, hence, potential users have to deal with a situation of informational vacuum in this regard. The existing schemes are characterized by exclusive use for a single project. A purely theoretical approach is presented in [10], [11]. The latter gives inter alia a detailed account of the tagset architecture used in the project to be presented in this paper [11:197—230], comparing it to the earlier proposals of the same author [10]. The international MULTEXT-East project [8] is dedicated to a uniform, harmonized presentation of language resources, enabling their further use in various information systems and easy data interchange. It was launched as MULTEXT project for six Western European languages in 1995 and further extended to some Central and Eastern European languages, under the name of MULTEXT-East (further MTE for short). Since 1998 it has been an on-going project. Each new version aimed at extending either the number of languages or types of resources within the existing language parts, correcting detected errors, eliminating inconsistencies, or updating the format of the data in order to be up-to-date with the latest technological advancements. The Ukrainian language was included in version 4, May 2010. The specifications for all 16 languages in version 4 are licensed under the Creative Commons licence Attribution-ShareAlike 3.0, which means that they are freely available from the project’s website for download. The lexicon is available free of charge for use for academic purposes and is available upon registration. Due to the XML family technologies and the uniform XML encoding used in MTE, different types of resources, such as the specifications, lexica, and the morphosyntactically annotated corpus are well integrated, “making it possible to easily move between different representations of the same data” [3:1].
MTE morphosyntactic specifications are “a TEI P5 document that provides the definition of the attributes and values used by the various languages for word-level syntactic annotation, i.e., they provide a formal grammar for the morphosyntactic properties of the languages covered” [3:2]. Apart from the formal parts the specifications contain comments, bibliography, various metainformation. The specifications consist of the front matter, the common part, describing features that are common for all the languages, and the language particular part. The common part includes definition of categories (parts-of-speech) and their possible features, comprising attribute and their values. “The morphosyntactic specifications also define the mapping between the feature-structures and morphosyntactic descriptions (MSDs), which are compact strings used in the morphosyntactic lexica and for corpus annotation” [3:2]. MSDs are similar to what is known as POS (part of speech) tags in that they are grammatical codes carrying morphosyntactic information at the wordform level with the exception that they have analytic, not synthetic representation, and far more detailed to be associated with the POSes only, especially in the case of such morphologically rich languages as Ukrainian.
There are 12 main morphosyntactic categories which correspond to traditional linguistic parts of speech. Each category has its own attributes and their values, information about which of the 16 languages uses each particular attribute-value pair is also present. While most categories are the same for the languages (with such exceptions as e.g. absence of articles in the Slavic parts), their attribute-values combinations differ significantly, both due to objective reasons, as well as using different linguistic traditions for language descriptions. The category code is the first element of the resulting tag, and each attribute takes a fixed position after it. Every such position is encoded by a one-character code.
Morphosyntactic specifications for Ukrainian that were developed within the multilingual European MULTEXT-East project were presented concisely in this paper. Summarizing the advantages of the specifications that will hopefully be acknowledged by their future users, they:
•    are freely available and well-documented;
•    are detailed enough (1239 unique tags);
•    are intuitive and relatively easy to remember for human users;
•    follow the international standards;
•    are consistent with 15 other languages, which enables a high degree of interoperability and use in multilingual projects such as machine translation, while preserving the common conceptual ground;
•    have been approbated in corpora and disambiguation experiments;
•    are stored in the popular for data exchange XML format;
•    possess handy, and also freely available, XSLT and XSD tools for data conversion, rearrangement and validation;
•    are supported by the only freely available tagger for Ukrainian (UGTag), allowing to encode textual data in standard XML-based corpus formats;
•    are accompanied by an extensive, freely available morphosyntactic lexicon.
    The importance of the resources from the multilingual perspective can be demonstrated by citing T. Erjavec, the leader of the MTE project: “The resources now cover most Slavic languages, which is esp. important as a) for a number of them, language resources are otherwise still hard to find and b) these languages have many common characteristics, i.e., they exhibit complex behaviour on the morphosyntactic level, and this is the first dataset that enables a qualitative and quantitative comparison between them.” [3:4]. The author hopes that the Ukrainian MTE resources will open new perspectives for development of Ukrainian corpus and computational linguistics and its fast international integration.
TECHNOLOGY OF TRANSFORMATION OF FIVE LANGUAGE DICTIONARY OF COMPARISONS INTO ELECTRONIC FORM
O. P. Levchenko, I. M. Kulchytskyy
Lviv Polytechnic National University,
Department of Applied Linguistics
In this article the structure of Ukrainian-Russian-Belarusian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary of comparisons was analyzed and the technology of its transformation from paper into electronic form was proposed.
Keywords — lexicography, dictionary, comparisons, electronic dictionary, information and structural model, information system, database.
The Law of Ukraine “On the Basic Principles for the Development of an Information-Oriented Society in Ukraine for 2007–2015” includes preservation of cultural heritage of Ukraine in one of the main strategic goals of the information society in Ukraine [22, s. I, par. 1]. To this purpose, among other things provided by law [22, s. III, par. 4, 10], the formation of appropriate information and library, and information retrieval systems of history, culture, folk art, modern art, etc. of Ukraine.
On the other hand, the current state of development of Ukrainian lexicography actualized such problems as updating of fundamental lexicons, need to transfer lexicographic heritage into digital form, and application of dictionaries to formation of linguistic components of conceptographic systems of knowledge explication [12, 3]. Especially important for Ukraine is the second problem, solving of which will help to introduce into a broad scientific use the maximum amount of information from the repertoire of published in book form lexicographical works. To these works belong Ukrainian-Russian-Belarusian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary of comparisons [11].
According to one of the typological schemes [10, 141] electronic dictionaries (dictionaries, recorded on electronic information media using electronic devices) are grouped by a number of features, including “means of application” and “access method”. In compliance with the first characteristic, dictionaries are divided into computer (recorded and reproduced on a personal or portable computer); pocket (recorded on pocket electronic devices, e.g., pocket translators); mobile (recorded on mobile phones). According to second feature, the following types of dictionaries are singled out: fixed (installed on a hard disk of computer), portable (recorded on compact disks with access only if available in the drive), and online – put on a computer-server in the network and available by its means, e.g., internet. Such dictionaries are designed for a wide range of users, which determines the structure of their information base, search criteria and structure of answers to the search queries.
According to their characteristics, electronic dictionaries fully meet the concept of information systems of a reference type and, therefore, during the transformation of a dictionary from paper into electronic form, the same approaches as for the design of information systems should be used. Thus, while developing the technology of transformation of five language dictionary of comparisons into electronic form, a number of problems should be solved, including analysis of the structure of the paper version of the dictionary and definition of its structure-forming parts; definition of the internal relations of the dictionary; construction of its information and structural model and development of technology of its transformation from paper into electronic form. The above mentioned factors determine the topicality of this study, with the aim — to offer the technology of transformation of Ukrainian-Russian-Belarusian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary from paper into electronic form by analyzing its structure and construction of the corresponding information and structural model.
In the paper version of the Ukrainian-Russian-Belarusian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary of comparisons an attempt to comparatively describe a fragment of the language pictures of the world, associated with the verbalization of some features (attribute comparisons), was made.
The principles of choosing the material were processed taking into consideration the analysis of the existing phraseographic works of several authors. The first Ukrainian dictionary of fixed comparisons is the work of I. Huryn [19] (2424 phrases). According to O. Yurchenko and A. Ivchenko, “I. I. Huryn included in his collection of “fixed national comparisons” many, one would say, “non-comparisons” of the types: Буде погода, як потече із неба вода; гірша відьма вчена, як родима; Добре слово краще, ніж готові гроші; Дурна, аж носом баньки дме; Дурне, аж очі йому рогом лізуть; Лід кріпкий, хоч гармати коти” [27, p. 5, 6]. The dictionary of O. Yurchenko and A. Ivchenko [27] is also devoted to fixation of the fixed comparisons. It was created on the different bases: during the compilation of the dictionary, the authors processed a significant number of lexicographical sources, however, as stated in the preface, “the main method of accumulating the material for this dictionary — direct survey of inhabitants of villages and towns of different age and type of occupation during the expedition, and also surveys and questionnaires of students (especially those of distant learning) and youth, collecting responses to questionnaires sent to various regions” [27, p. 6]. In our opinion, the value of the accumulated material consists in the application of the questioning method.
A number of fixed comparisons, excluded from literary works, are presented in the collection of M. Paziak [24]. The works of V. Chabanenko [16] and H. Dobrolozhi [3] are dedicated to fixed comparisons in dialects.
The first-in the Ukrainian electronic lexicography of fixed comparisons is “Elektronnyi slovnyk porivnian” (“Electronic dictionary of comparisons”) [5], which “establishes the compilation of electronic dictionaries of comparisons in artistic speech”. This dictionary was created on the basis of database of comparisons of Yurii Andrukhovych and Oksana Zabuzhko; this array of texts consists of 508 noun comparisons (i.e. objects and phenomena are compared, rather than actions).
In this field the achievements of Russian lexicographers [8; 20; 17; 15; 2; 7, 21, etc] are significant.
V. Oholtsev notes that “Slovar ustoichevykh sravnenii russkoho yazyka (sinonimo-antonimicheskii)” (“Dictionary of fixed comparisons of the Russian language (synonymous and antonymous)”) [20] (2000 fixed comparisons) — is normative, it does not contain “numerous transformations of fixed comparisons used in literary works. Outside the dictionary also remain the comparisons-stamps, which, unlike the fixed comparisons, are deprived of the nationwide, language reproducibility and are limited in their use to narrow scope of literary and artistic speech: словно вылитый из бронзы (чугуна, серебра, золота), точно вырезанный из слоновой кости (картона, жести, бумаги)...” [20, p. 6, 7].
The dictionary of fixed comparisons of V. Mokiienko and T. Nikitina (11 thousand of units) [13] is an achievement of Russian lexicography. The compilers of the mentioned phraseographic work aimed to fully reflect the whole diversity of comparisons “in time and space”, accompanying the submitted units with the detailed marking system [13, p. 7].
The dictionary of K. Horbachevych was mostly built according to alphabetic order of the objects of comparison [2]. Within the dictionary entry the comparisons are presented in compliance with different principle: first, the most common, stylistically neutral words are given, and then marked words (obsolete, poetic, folk and poetic, etc.) and finally individual and author’s comparisons. The dictionary includes historical and etymological comments.
Ye. V. Ivantsova created “Idiolektnyi slovar sravnenii sibirskoho starozhyla” (“Idiolect dictionary of comparisons of the Siberian old resident”) [7]. According to the researchers, this work — is the first attempt to create an idiolect dictionary of comparisons in the Russian lexicography. “As the source of the dictionary served the speech recordings of V. P. Vershynina, resident of Vershynino village, Tomsk region, which were studied by dialectologists of Tomsk state university for a quarter of a century (1981-2004). The dictionary contains 1744 comparisons, fixed in 2599 examples. Among them there are all-Russian .., and dialect .., and individual .., and created by the informant himself” [26].
Belarusian lexicography is represented with the dictionary of F. Yankovskyi “Belarusian national comparisons: brief dictionary” (“Беларускія народныя параўнанні: кароткі слоўнік”) (1973) [28]. Recently in phraseology appeared also “Belarusian dictionary of national comparisons” (“Слоўнік беларускіх народных параўнанняў”) of T. Valodzina and L. Salavei [1]. According to the compilers, this dictionary – is an experience of the most complete collection of Belarusian national fixed comparisons. This dictionary contains more than 8 thousand of comparisons of different types, accompanied with linguocultural comments.
Bulgarian phraseology of comparisons is presented with the dictionary of V. S. Kiuvliievoi-Myshaikovoi [9], in which about 1500 of units are fixed.
The dictionary of fixed comparisons of the Polish language of M. Banko contains more than 2000 units [29]. As the source of the material for this dictionary, as mentioned the complier, were not only other dictionaries, but also the computer Corpus of the Polish language PWN (Korpus Języka Polskiego PWN), which enabled to define meanings of the units, field of usage, and to determine frequency (comparisons inside the dictionary entry are located according to frequency) [29 , p. 7]. This lexicographical work is interesting because of detailed study of the material, as M. Banko accompanies a series of comparisons with etymological information.
The authors under the direction of Zh. Fink compiled a dictionary of Slavic comparative phraseology in which the original language is Croatian, and the target ones —  Slovenian, Macedonian, Bulgarian, Ukrainian, Russian, Polish, Czech and Slovak language (“Hrvatsko-slavenski rječnik poredbenih frazema” (“Croatian-Slavic dictionary of comparisons”), 2006) [25]. The dictionary contains 540 “comparative phraseological units” with comparative conjunctions that are located in alphabetical order of the core words. In some cases, the explanation of the meaning is supplemented with either situational characteristic and/or contextual use of the headword or specification and/or narrowing of meaning. In addition, an illustrative material was proposed, quotations from the fiction works of modern Croatian writers, from periodicals, international search network Internet, and in cases where it was impossible to confirm the phraseological unit in the mentioned sources, the illustrative materials were made by the author of the Croatian part of the dictionary.
In the preface to the “Bolshoi slovar russkikh pohovorok” (“Big dictionary of the Russian proverbs”) V. Mokiienko notes that the compilers of this dictionary tried to “give the most complete list of Russian national idiomatics in all its functional and stylistic areas — literary, journalistic, dialect, colloquial, substandard and professional. Actually, here we largely followed the maximalist principle of V. I. Dal, which was nowadays lexicographically justified by B. O. Larin, who created the concept of complete dictionaries ... This approach, which follows from the traditions of European lexicography, is productive at least because it allows to present lexicographically a particular part of the national language as a relatively complete system. Such attempt was made in this dictionary on the material of Russian proverbs” [14]. During the processing of principles of creating the paper version of the “Ukrainian-Russian-Belarusian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary of comparisons”, in particular, the principles of selecting the material, the efforts were directed to the most comprehensive rendering of some fragment of language phenomena – attribute comparisons.
Agreeing with A. Dolhova (“If the author of a dictionary does not clearly distinguish fixed and occasional comparisons, then such dictionary, which contains a broad strata of turns of speech and language, creates a specific national picture of the language and gives a detailed view of the figurative potential of comparisons in language practice of a speaker”[4]), we should note that the involvement of the fixed and occasional units in the dictionary does not give rise to their non-differentiation in the phraseographic work (for this there exists a system of stylistic marks in the dictionary). The presence of modern technological means allows you to reproduce “synchronous dynamics” of the language state and “implemented potential”. The fixation of transformation of fixed units is particularly interesting about the “potential” of comparisons. In this respect there is an interesting approach of V. Mokiienko, which states that measure of mainly speech usage of proverbs is their active variation as the strict differentiation of fixed phrases from non-fixed ones is quite relative [14, p. 6].
In the electronic form the Ukrainian-Russian-Belarusian-Bulgarian-Polish dictionary of comparisons should be presented as information and reference system, the basis of which will be lexicographical database that contains the dictionary entries. As additional elements this system will include analytical materials, dedicated to functioning of comparisons in language and bibliography of the corresponding scientific and lexicographical systems. In perspective, the electronic version of the dictionary should be supplemented with means of editing the information and the possibility of putting it on the Internet should be provided.
AN APPROACH OF TASK SOLVING OF CHOOSING OF TYPHLOCOMMENTATOR, DESCRIPTION OF SUBJECT FOR SIGHTLESS
А. Demchuk, V. Lytvyn
National University “Lviv Politechnic”
The statement of problem of choosing of typhlocommentator is considered in this article, the description of the subject among the number of possible typhlocommentators. The mathematic model of such a task is given and an approach of solving it has been worked out.
Keywords – typhlocomment, typhlocommentator, films for sightless, informational technologies, description of the subject, video content
There are about 200 thousand visually impaired people living in the Ukraine, 70 thousand of them are totally blind. Overall in the world about 314 million people with visual impairment, and 45 million are totally blind. Science development, society computerization and using of multimedia technologies created conditions for development of computer communication systems for visually impaired people. Currently the matter of accommodation and using of achievements of the mankind in adaptation of blind people to the socium is of critical importance.
One of achievements of the mankind, which is largely unavailable and not completely understandable for the blind people, is a video content – movies, popular scientific and cognitive programs. Sighted person sees through the eyes of about 80% of the information is in video content. Totally blind person can get only about 16% of the information coming through the auditory organ.
Currently massive cinema almost inaccessible to people with visual impairments. Here are the main problems:
- Distance from cinemas residence that our reality mobility aid for blind, is almost the main problem of access to them without assistance;
- Usually inaccessibility of the building cinema;
- Incomplete clarity of the video content;
- High prices, given that blind people usually adequate resources to be able to develop and learn through video content;
- Healthy people, often after watching a movie, reading a book, based on which the film was set in the blind is usually the opposite - one of the few available ways of such a person is reading, which is written in Braille, and often after reading this book, blind would see his screen version, which unfortunately is usually not available for this group of people.
Currently mass cinemas are almost unavailable to people with a limited eyesight due to the matter of availability of the building itself, non-adaptivity of the content, not to mention prices as the blind man has few opportunities to provide for himself at a sufficient level, to be able to develop and learn through video content. Nowadays when the film industry has technical capabilities being sufficient for realization of any artistic design, it seems that there is no necessity to speak, what a huge world opens to each people present in the cinema hall or sitting in front of the TV set or monitor.
When researching the problem of access of visually impaired people to the video content, it is required to understand that more than a most part of the information is provided to the viewer in the form of an image. Yes, blind people hear all words of actors, sounds of the environment, processes at the screen, but it is difficult for them to identify the person to whom the specific words belong, what happens with heroes at the very specific moment, what is depicted in the given scene, it is difficult for them to understand reaction of actors, which the latter often express with the help of movements or mimics.
Typhlocomments to films for blind people are one of the real steps towards solution of the problem of limitation of access to such content. It opens up a large space for society adaptation not only for adults, but also for children with visual problems, who could watch cartoons, learn how to count, and learn the alphabet using video with typhlocomment.
Nearly hundreds of movies produced in Europe are adapted for the blind, in China, where special departments at the professional film studios are working on the voice over process, this number varies from 10 to 15, in Russia it reaches 5 per year. Ukraine has not created this kind of video content yet.
It is required to develop a model of postscoring of plots of the video content, if duration thereof is known, subject to absence of overlapping of such postscoring with dialogues of the video content itself.
To develop a mathematical model of computer distribution of description of plots, optimization thereof in accordance with duration of the plot itself with absence of overlapping with dialogues of the plot. The article describes the mathematical setting of the task of realization of building of the system of rules for the typhlocommentator.
Setting of the task of selection of the typhlocommentator for description of the plot among multitude of probable typhlocommentators has been considered in the article. Mathematical model of such of the given task has been adduced; approach to solution thereof has been developed.
The definitionion of typhlocomment is also provided, the rules that have to be adhered to by an actor, who read typhlocomment for the video content, are defined. It is important to remember, that the text which is being read by an actor, his intonation, emotions expressed by his voice will be the “eyes” of those people watching the video content.
Further researches will be devoted to the task of detachment of places from the plot for introduction of typhlocomments.
TYPES OF LINGUISTIC MODELS AND THEIR APPLICATION TO SOLVING OF LINGUISTIC TASKS
M. O. Lukach,
Lviv Polytechnic National University,
Department of Applied Linguistics
This paper outlines understanding of the notions ‘model’ and ‘modeling’ in linguistics. The main linguistic models and their application to solving of different linguistic tasks are described.
Keywords – modeling, model, generative model, research model, analytical model, synthetic model.
Over the last decades we observe the rapid development of applied linguistics due to the permanently increasing need for application of natural language mechanisms to information and computer human-machine systems [3, p. 3]. Modeling of natural language and speech became the issues of particular importance. It encourages researchers to develop a variety of linguistic models that could solve practical problems of linguistics, namely, information retrieval, machine translation, natural language understanding, knowledge extraction and localization from text et al.
One of the important linguistic models is model ‘Meaning ⇔ Text’ developed by I. A. Melchuk. Although this multilevel model of transformation from meaning into text and vice versa was established already in the second half of the twentieth century, but it still continues to be investigated and is applied to the problems of machine translation. In addition, the markup of syntactic sub-corpus of Russian National Corpus is performed using linguistic processor ETAP-3, based on the principles of model ‘Meaning ⇔ Text’ [8]. We should also mention the grammatical model HPSG (Head-driven phrase structure grammar) -generative grammatical theory, developed by C. Pollard and I. Sag in the early 1980s [9, p. 44]. Since that time, different parsers based on HPSG formalism have been written. The HPSG grammars of different languages are being developed within the project (DELPH-IN).
The purpose of the article - to outline the approaches to definition of the notion ‘model’ in linguistics, as well as to review the main types of linguistic models and their application to solving of different linguistic problems.
The research models can be divided into three classes, depending on what information is used in them as initial. In the model of the first class only text is used as initial information, and all information about the system, i.e., language that generates this text, is extracted from text data only. This is an example of classic decoding models. In the models of the second class not only text, but also a set of correct sentences of the language are given. This means that during the creation of a model a linguist gets help from an informant that has to say whether each proposed sentence is correct or not. The linguist himself can be an informant if he is fluent in the given language. Finally, in the models of the third class not only a text and a set of correct phrases, but also a set of semantic invariants are given. This means that the informant must not only determine the correctness of each proposed sentence, but also he should be able to say about any two phrases whether they mean the same or not [1, p. 101].
In this paper the definitions of notions ‘model’ and ‘modeling’ in linguistics are reviewed. The steps of building a model and its basic properties are outlined. The main types of linguistic models and their application to solving a variety of linguistic tasks are described in detail.
Therefore, modeling of linguistic phenomena is still an extremely important today and should be further studied because there are still many unresolved issues.
APPLICATION OF DATA MINING AVERAGES TO FORECAST THE USE OF LAND RESOURCES
А. Berko, І.Hlaholeva,
Lviv Polytechnic National University,
Information Systems and Networks department
This article describes the procedures of data mining based on prediction of time series for land cadastre data. Principles, required for the development of the method of forecasting using time serious are examined. Mathematical model for serious prediction is developed. The task of prediction of land resources using in Striy District Lviv Region is technically realized.
Keywords: land cadastre, data mining, forecasting.
Efficiency of the land use is an important factor in the processes of decision-making related to land management. The land cadastre data contain a good many of records which form essential potential for efficiency enhancement of the land resources use. One of the ways to implement such potential is to forecast possible options of the resource use – a process of forming probable indicators of a defined object, which is directed towards discovery and examination of possible alternatives its future development. Forecasting is an important link between theory and practice in many branches of social activity, especially in management of sustainable land use. Forecasting of land use processes makes it possible to solve the tasks of efficient and sustainable land exploitation, and ensures land supply and demand balance.
For the last decades, a large number of spatial data were collected, which are now stored at the Central Board of the State Committee on Land Resources. The volumes of those data are so large that their analysis takes substantial time, financial, and technical costs, although, the necessity of such analysis is in fact obvious, since ‘raw data’ like these contain knowledge which may be used during approval of decisions to determine further processes of land use during a long time lapse.
One of today’s most promising averages to solve tasks on the efficient use and processing of large volumes of data are technologies based on methods of data mining.
Data Mining, DM, represents a process of discovery of hidden or not explicitly presented records but suitable for use large data sets. Data mining involves various mathematical methods for discovery of objective laws, ties and trends which exist in such data. Such objective laws may generally not be discovered during traditional data scanning, as their ties are too complicated, or may not be defined due to excess data volumes [1]. Data mining (DM) is a multidiscipline area which originated and has developed based on sciences like, applied statistics, pattern recognition, artificial intelligence, database theory, and other similar tooling. Data mining is a part of a process of knowledge discovery in data bases (KDD). It enables to unlock the essence of hidden data dependencies, elicit mutual impacts between object properties, information about which is stored in databases, extract objective laws peculiar for a specific data set [1]. Basic data mining methods and algorithms include, but are not limited to: neural networks, decision trees, symbol rules, nearest neighbour methods and k-nearest neighbour methods, support vector machines, Bayes networks, linear regression, correlation-regression analysis, hierarchical methods of cluster analysis, non-hierarchical methods of cluster analysis, including algorithms of k-average and k-median, methods of search for association rules, that is to include Apriori algorithm; method of limited exhaustion, evolution programming ad genetic algorithms, various methods of data visualization [1].
Most analytical methods used in data mining are well-known mathematic algorithms and methods. New side of their application is a feasibility of using these averages when solving one or another specific problem of data processing, such feasibility based on appearance of new capacities of hardware and software averages. It also should be mentioned that most data mining methods were developed as a part of an artificial intelligence theory [2].
Described herein data mining method based on a forecasting of time series for land cadastre makes it possible to make data analysis and forecast future values of the land use in Stryi district Lviv region.
A defect of such forecasting method is that is uses no independent variables and is fully based on the forecasted series history.

INFORMATION ENGINEERING AS THE SUBJECT OF TEACHING
Parviz Kazimi
Library science Baku, State University
The article contains the description of modern library activities, such as the information engineering, and describes the following ten characteristics: 1. the information theory; 2. the classification of information; 3. the information environment and space; 4. the information modeling; 5. the information services; 6. the information market; 7. the information resources; 8. the information retrieval systems; 9. the information threats and wars; 10. the information security and protection.
In the 70s, when the author of this article was studying the librarianship, the library practice adapted technical innovations that had to be got acquainted with after the graduation. The scientific and technical progress was at pick in the 80s. The computerization of information processes and the further globalization processes pointed to the incompetence of library graduates in the prediction of library and information processes.
The introduction lack of prospects of library and information activities is felt in the theoretical and practical training of students. The prospect was dictated by the scientific and technical progress (according to the modern terms that is computerization and digitization), including the socio-economic culture. Library professionals did not have time for innovations, they adapted to new requirements, dictating by the implement of new technologies. At the time, when the library scientists began to call the classical concept “librarianship” in a new way – “library and information activities”, it was necessary to have the complex subjects for the formation of qualified librarians who should support the activities of the “information engineer” both in form and in fact.
In the twentieth century, the problem of the information engineering was discussed in the professional press and attracted the attention of specialists in different fields of activities. However, we do not have a comprehensive academic research and a clear definition of the basic concept until now.
Some experts understand the information engineering as the field of information technology and communication systems. Other experts consider the information engineering as an approach to the development of information systems and their design. You can get the bachelor degree in “Information Engineering” at the University of Chi Dzian in the People's Republic of China. Introduction of the training program gives reasons to believe that here it is being discussed about the engineering of information and communication tools, and the priority is given to the development of information and technology tools.
We understand the information engineering in a wider sense.
The word “engineer” is of Arabian origin: “Muhandis” means “a person who knows the geometry”. It is used in all Muslim countries in this sense. In Latin, the word “engineer” means “the ability, ingenuity”. In ancient times, the engineer was the man who drove the war machines. In the sixteenth century, the Dutch began to call the engineers those, who involved in the construction of bridges and roads. Since the eighteenth century, the concept has begun to be used in Russia.
In the twentieth century, engineering began to differentiate quickly. Now, an engineer is called the person who is highly qualified and performs a specific (not only technical) responsibilities in various fields. There are 5 basic principles that were underlain in the engineering activities:
1. To define the purpose.
2. To develop the information about materials (or products) in order to achieve the goal.
3. To develop the information about tools in order to achieve the goal.
4. To model and standardize in order to achieve the goal.
5. To manage and control the processes in order to achieve the goal. [2]
These classical principles have been implemented in the library activities since the ancient times and they got more vivid expression in the modern information society.
In our opinion, the information engineering should be understood as a set of interrelated components:
1. The information theory.
2. The classification of information.
3. The information environment and space.
4. The information modeling.
5. The information service.
6. The information market (free and paid services).
7. The information resources.
8. The information retrieval systems.
9. The information threats and wars.
10. The information security and protection.
Then there is the possibility of system understanding of information activities of libraries, which is implemented on the basis of modern technological tools. So, let’s consider the theoretical background of this view on library activities.
1. The information theory has changed from mathematical theory into social one.
Among the researchers of the information theory, the book “Introduction to the information theory (source coding)”, published by V.D. Kolesnik and G.Sh. Poltirevyi in 1980, attracts our attention [3]. The researchers believe that the problem of the information theory became an independent research object in the works of American mathematician and engineer Claude Shannon in 1948. Shannon created a mathematical information theory, which was based on a theorem, and it played an important role in the development of cybernetics in the 1960s and 1970s.
Great services in the development of the theoretical information concept belong to the Russian scientist I. I. Yuzvishin, the creator of the great scientific theory, which is called the information science. The information theory in the context of information engineering is reflected in the book “Fundamentals of the information science” published by I.I. Yuzvishin in 2000 [4].
2. People have been making the information classification since the ancient times.
A lot of acknowledged scientists tried to develop their own classifications, to group objects by fields, to create a logical system, and thus to learn the universe, the logic existence, etc. Documentary sources record the hundreds of such examples, which are typical for the last 2,000 years of human history. The evolution of classification theories was carried out in various ways: from the applied thesauruses to the theoretically based glossaries of basic sciences and conversely, from the glossaries of basic sciences to the separate thesauruses. Despite this, the problem of scientific and logical explanation remains the relevant topic of discussion in the developed classification systems nowadays.
3. The information environment and space are global in nature.
Today, there are no territories and states, remaining outside the global information processes. The experience shows that you can not isolate from the global information processes, and you should actively participate in them.
Experts give the greater role to the media in forming of the information environment, note that if the press affects the information environment at a particular time, in the result of this systematic press (media reports), libraries will have a continuous impact force. From this point of view, the information engineering should examine and evaluate the factor of “information hunger”, learn the information environment and information impacts on consumers.
4. People have been making the information modeling for a long time.
It is important to determine the information elements that are relevant to the information security of professionals and other categories of information users. We are confronted with complex information models in the medieval eastern poetry, in the European philosophical school, and in encyclopedias. The bibliographic description and bibliographic services are perfect models that have been successfully applied in the library activities. S. Kramer, in his study “The story begins in Sumer” [5], identified the oldest library catalog with the specific search features that focused on the reader needs of that time. Thus, the information modeling is required in many areas of library operations. A complex model of information should be created in order to convert the uncertain reader’s demand (consumer) into particular (articulated) query. Library statistics plays an important role in creating a social-psychological model of the reader, identifying the consumer demand, the information modeling which is necessary for the formation of new library and information products, forecasting the needs of readers, etc.
5. Libraries are the most ancient institutions of information services.
Library as a social institution appeared in response to the growing cultural needs of the society and still is probably the only information organization, meeting the requirements of flexibility and reliability. At all times, performing its information mission, libraries were under the care of the state, served for the progressive development of society and fulfilled humanistic, educational function. Some experts believe that the library should serve its users without focusing the attention on the content of the disseminated information. We believe that the library service should be open and accessible to all members of society. But it eliminates the propaganda of false, inhumane information by the library and spreading misinformation.
The priority interests of the state, national interests and universal values should be considered in the activities of each library. And that requires a highly skilled library professionals. The information service in the context of the information engineering must be reliable, disinterested and affordable.
6. Market nature of the information clearly manifested itself in the twentieth century.
Today, the commercial value of information is one of the important factors. The experience of recent years shows that Dan Brown, having received the world readership fame in a year time (we all know how that happened), has a larger amount of his books than F.M. Dostoevsky, being promoted for many years. Obviously, if active players operate on the information market (not just the consulting firms and commercial companies), market mechanisms will work, and social information that forms the true values become a full member of the market. But in spite of this, the price of information is conditional, subjective, changeable over time and space. Staying faithful to the basic provisions of information science, it is necessary to ascertain that the information is invaluable, plays a crucial role in the creation, formation, development and protection of society.
7. Experts called the information resources as the noosphere.
Most of the information mass is collected, systematized and stored in the library holdings. Alternatives of library collections still does not exist. The main carriers of information resources and documentary information are widely commented in the trade literature. If you add the resources of social media, it will open a wider view.
8. Information retrieval systems have come through a long historical path of development before the use of modern sophisticated technological tools.
S. Kramer in his book [5] points out that the catalog began to be compiled in libraries in the era of the ancient Sumerian culture (5000 years ago). Electronic library retrieval systems, forming lately, are different from the classic card and printed directories and files for quick and multiple searches, practicality, and some other parameters. But traditional directories, being the primary source of electronic information retrieval, have retained their value.
9. Malware in condition of opposition are turning into the information struggle.
Information weapons are born in this struggle. Researchers give a definition of information weapons as technology, acting on the information system, its media and mentality of the enemy. The transformation of information struggle into the information war was common in the last century.
Malware took place at all times. But the impact force of these threats increased nowadays. The processes of information processing, information protection against misinformation, false and manipulative information are inherent in both classical and modern libraries. The modern librarian has information about the geopolitical, geo-economic and geo-culturological processes and actively participates in the development of information fund. In this regard, librarians as information engineers need to avoid the information effects and become the elements of information struggle.
Librarians act as a group of “anti-diversionists” in the modern library and information processes. Carrying out the collection, processing, and data protection, librarians can and should take expert advice to the relevant disciplines, so as to avoid all sorts of misinformation.
10. The information security and data protection generate each other.
Different methods were used for the information security in various times.
In the III-V centuries Christian sects hid the Gospels of Christ in order to protect it, and in the XIII century French scientist R. Bacon used the seven types of cryptographic writing [2].
In the VII century, the first verses of the Quran, a thousand Hafiz-Quran (memorized) learnt by heart in order to preserve and protect them.
Today, the information security is more broadly understood as the national security, the state and individual security. Some authors limit the information security by the scope of software and security of electronic resources. This is one point of the case. On the other hand, the legal provision of information security and its protection is an equally important factor. The proverb “What we defend, that we possess” becomes more and more urgent.
Thus, librarianship of XXI century was mastering the concept of information engineering, should allow its use in the library practice. The study of the information sources, the development of models of information services and retrieval systems, the protection against information threats and attacks contribute to giving greater importance to the modern concept of “library”. All components of the information engineering are implemented in the library activities. We believe that there is a need for a broader study of these components [10].
In conclusion, we can give the following definition of the concept “information engineering”. It is a complex activity in order to create various information processes, design techniques and application, and plan the implementation of information services [2].
In conditions of the increasing role of economic factors in society, the development of the information market, the study of complex problems of information offer and demand, organizations of information services and protection against information threats and impacts gain the particular topicality. Their interpretation in the context of the “information engineering” provides consistency and conceptuality of produced theoretical, methodological and organizational decisions.
The introduction of the concept of information engineering in the learning process for students and practitioners will provide with actualization and modernization of the educational process in the context of the contemporary global information society in the field of library management.
PROJECTS’ PORTFOLIO FORMATION USING TWO-STEP PROCEDURE
A.V. Katrenko, D.S. Mahats, A.S. Mahats
National University «Lviv polytechnic»,
Information Systems and Networks Department
Considered problems of organization and support management in organizations that implement their activities in the form of projects, as well as the main approaches to managing a portfolio of projects, proposed two-step procedure for drawing portfolio, taking into account both formal and informal aspects.
Keywords: portfolio, optimization, Pareto-optimal solutions, the method of analytic hierarchy.
The need for organizations to implement more than one project led to the emergence of a new type of objects that are associated with the management of the organization, such as was feasible election and formation of a group of projects in the portfolio of projects [6,7]. According to the standard OMP3 (PMI), there are three levels of maturity of the organization that implements the project approach: project management (PM3 = Project Management Maturity Model); management of programs and projects (P2M3 = Programme and Project Management Maturity Model); managing portfolios, programs and projects (P3M3 = Portfolio, Programme and Project Management Maturity Model). The company may move to new levels of maturity only after reaching the previous level.
Portfolio - a collection of projects or programs and other work, combined with the goal of effective management to achieve the strategic goal [6]. Project Portfolio Management is a task whose importance has increased markedly in recent years, due to several factors, such as [1,2]:
•    increasing of innovative activity leads to the need to create tools for project selection that match the chosen strategy and contribute to the growth of competitiveness project-oriented companies;
•    increasing of investment activity has high requirements for the selection of projects to be included in the portfolio of the investor;
•    existing methodology for real projects portfolio management is not perfect, methodologically coherent, there are new ideas and approaches that require development and generalization.
Methods of forming portfolio developed taking into account the following:
•    participation of experts and evaluation of their individual projects; this feature is very important because it is the experts determine the initial set of candidate projects for inclusion in the portfolio and prepare final decision;
•    strategic orientation of the portfolio, which contributes to the implementation of strategy and policy to avoid «gaps»;
•    ways of allocating resources among projects portfolio based on resource constraints;
•    uncertainty parameters of projects; the degree of uncertainty decreases as we approach the end of the project period;
•    interdependence of projects in the portfolio that reflects the real situation in the creation of new products and processes.
The main purpose of the work is a critical analysis of models of portfolio formation, determining the main directions of solving this problem and develop a procedure of portfolio subject to the restrictions on resources, which takes into account both quantitative and qualitative aspects.
The main tasks of the current projects portfolio management are: determining the structure of the portfolio of projects - types and characteristics of projects that should be included in the portfolio to achieve organizational goals, a portfolio of projects - selection projects to be included in the portfolio, scheduling process of portfolio allocation of resources between projects portfolio, efficient portfolio management projects. Problem forming portfolio belongs to the poorly structured, making it difficult to develop effective methods for its solution. Existing methods used to form the portfolio, built on the use of single-criterion optimization models – even in cases where several criteria are considered, they are brought to a single criterion by introducing a global criterion and switch to some other limitations. The information you receive from experts is offered in many cases is quite extensive, which makes excessive demands on experts, and it eventually diminish its authenticity.
The proposed procedure consists of two main stages – a multiple Pareto optimal portfolio choices and final selection and portfolio formation, which was adopted to implement that can handle multiple projects and portfolios of options to consider both quantitative and qualitative aspects.
FORECASTING THE RISKS OF CREDITING OF INDIVIDUALS USING MATHEMATICAL MODELS
Olga Kozhukhivska
Cherkassy state technological university, Chair IAIS Shevchenko Boulevard, 460, Cherkassy, Ukraine
In the Paper modern approaches to mathematical modeling of retail crediting process have been considered. There has been established necessity to construct specialized decision support systems on basis of system analysis principles in crediting potential clients. Advantages of such systems are possibility to implement effective preliminary data processing, use several alternative methods to estimate clients’ status and set of quality criteria on each stage of data analysis.
Key words - retail crediting, mathematical models, client state estimation, decision making.
         One of basic directions of activity of bank institutions is crediting of individuals. The proper management of such financial processes allows setting mutually advantageous long-term relations between the borrowers of credit and financial institutions. Considerable accumulations of bank capitals are quite up to date; expansions of banks’ proposals and increase of organizational level and standardization of business processes promote the dynamic growth of amount of retail clients and volumes of credits. Also there is simplification of banks requirements to the target audiences and reduction of time necessary for decision making to possibility of crediting of a person. Obviously the influence of such factors leads up growth of losses as a result of realization of the proper financial risks. If growth rates and revenue of credit brief-case are high enough, they fully recover financial losses as a result of realization of the risks. For this reason most financial organizations during the protracted period did not do the proper investments in development of modern effective methods to control crediting and introduction of modern information computer technologies, directed in decision making support in the process of management of the retail crediting risks. However a case of retail crediting had been gradually changing to worse, the situation was aggravated by world financial crisis despite its (mainly) external origin.
         From autumn 2008 most of the financial organizations faced such problems: 1) – substantial limitations appeared in relation to access to the currency financial resources; absence of resources means limitation of crediting volumes, and consequently diminishing volumes and rates of growth of credit brief-case profitableness; 2) – as a result of crisis in the  economic sphere (growth of currency rates, decline of level of labor payment, partial or complete loss of work, decline of production volumes) the volumes of problem credits grew considerably; 3) – the amount of swindle cases was increased in the process of crediting.
         All these factors mean the necessity to change the existing approaches to organization and accompaniment of process of the retail crediting. Today there is an urgent need to create the effective principles of management and reliable (as for the results of calculations) computer information systems of making decisions support.  The need to use modern methods of statistical and intellectual analysis of data has become especially demanded as well as mathematical modeling of financial and economical processes in order to build up mathematical models for predicting the possibility of credit returning.
       On the whole the crediting process consists of such stages [1–4]: 1) the  evaluation of solvency of a client; 2) the accompaniment and monitoring of process of payment of     the taken credit; 3) the realization of measures in relation to the penalty of outstanding debt; 4) the analysis of current status of credit brief-case and making out the proper managing influences; 5) the  permanent update (adaptation) of models of evaluation of clients solvency to the new terms.
        Therefore in this work there will be considered modern models and methods of evaluation of solvency of individuals on the basis of which there will be a possibility to build up  computer systems of making decisions support with the purpose of acceleration of data analysis processes and increase of objectivity and quality of decisions.
        Modern approaches to the solution of crediting tasks on the condition of minimizing risks of possible losses demand implementation of new effective principles of managing risks and computer systems of decision making support. To build up such systems it is necessary to develop and use plurality of alternative methods of data analysis, alternative models and certain criteria of analysis of models quality and final result – a possibility of no returning a credit.
        In the paper there has been executed the analysis of some modern approaches to create classification of mathematical models total usage of which will give a possibility to make correct reasonable decisions concerning giving out credits to the clients of financial institutions. The best results of clients’ classification using actual statistical data are received by fuzzy logic, binary nonlinear models and Bayesian network.  This means that models of such type have better indicators of statistical parameters of quality. Also it is perspective to further develop the method on the basis of inner credit ratings that provides complete information concerning the situation with credits. For example it is possible to get the estimation of possible losses. In further research it is necessary to improve chosen types of classification models in order to increase the quality of clients’ classification into two or more groups. Also it is reasonable to use simultaneously «ideologically» different types of models – regression, probabilistic, neural networks and neuro-fuzzy approch.
INFORMATION TECHNOLOGIES IN PROMOTING COMPETENCE 'S APPROACH TO TEACHING ELECTRICAL ENGINEERS
Lebedinskiy I.L., Zagorodnya Т.М.
Sumy State University, Sumy
It is regarded the possibility of using information technology to identify specific parameters of studies in the formation of competence model of the future engineer. It was proposed  and justify the feasibility and effectiveness of the information approach to the formation of information and substantive content of structural units (logical units) with the restriction of the total training time, with the influence of the parameters of studies on the formation of competencies.
Keywords: competence of the engineer, the set of competencies, quantitative parameters of classes, expert iterative approach
The current paces of technological changes in manufacturing requires correction approach to training future engineers. Education, which focused on a "ready knowledges" ceases to be effective more tangible. In paper [1] states that "Improving the quality of education is one of the most pressing problems not only for Russia, but for the entire world community. The solution to this problem is connected with the modernization of educational content, optimizing processes and technologies for the organization of the educational process and, of course, reinterpretation of the objectives and results of education". M.Ivanova [2] points out that "Currently characteristic type of thinking is not an engineer ready assimilation of scientific and practical knowledge, and creative self-educational activities for the design of new knowledge, planning, forecasting, modeling, and ensure efficient operation of the production". In the work of A.Dymarska [3] states that "The labor market has requirements not only to the level of theoretical knowledge of a potential employee, as to the level of his skills, responsibility, communication skills, learning and adaptability." We agree with the above-indicated views that modern education, including training of future engineers should focus on labor market demand, consistent with global trends.
One approach to solving the problem of training highly qualified engineers is competence-oriented approach, as evidenced by the paper [1] "... there is an abrupt reorientation of the education evaluation with the concepts of "preparedness", "education", "common culture", "education", on the concept of "competence", "competence" of students". O. Hutorsky [4] says "Introduction to the legal competence and the practical component of education can solve the problem that is typical for the Russian school ..." N. Shymonina [5], in which the author states that "Competence approach in technological organization of pedagogical process, based on a modular knowledge representation, ensure the quality of training of engineers through linkages between educational requirements and market sectors" and others.
Thus, the labor market makes it tougher requirements for potential workers: today requires professionals with a high level of practical skills, responsible, sociable, creative, capable of adapting and learning, and construction of traditional educational process was suitable for the preparation of such specialists. The relevance of this problem is confirmed by the fact that this approach to training future professionals laid today in the National Strategy for Education in Ukraine for 2012-2021 [6], where indicated that the main task of higher education is "the development of higher education, oriented competence approach in education ... "
Analyzing the problems of training of competitive specialists should be implemented new efficient approach in education. Jacques Delors in his paper [7] emphasizes "Universities need to develop new approaches to development that would allow their countries to begin a genuine building of a better future. Universities of these countries have to provide vocational and technical training of prospective elite and graduates of high and medium level that are needed by the country...". To solve this problem you can use it competency approach. In A.Lebedev's paper [8] considered competence approach, which according to the author's position is a set of general principles defining the goals of education, curriculum selection, organization of educational process and evaluation of educational outcomes. This definition we consider the most complete. Competence approach focuses on the ability to use the knowledges in the professional activities. From the standpoint of basic competency approach direct result of education is the formation of competences. There are many interpretations of the terms "competence" and "competency", for example, in the works of Doctor of Psychology, Professor I.Zymnia [4], Doctor of Pedagogical Sciences, Professor J.Tatour [10]. In our opinion, the most complete interpretation is that provided by O.Hutorsky [11]. Competence - a "possession of a person competent jurisdiction, which includes his personal attitudes and the subject". Competencies – "a set of interconnected 'associated personality traits (knowledge, skills, and ways of life), defined in relation to a range of objects and processes, and quality required for productive activities in relation to them".
There are different approaches to the classification of competencies [9]. We use the classification for universities proposed in the draft TUNING [10] and in the preparation of draft standards for specialty bachelors and masters degree.
According to the classification proposed in TUNING, competencies are divided into two groups:
I. General (universal, key) – required for every educated person in the development of any profession:
• tool - cognitive, technological, linguistic, communicative (eg the ability to retrieve and analyze information from various sources, the ability to solve problems, the ability to make decisions);
• interpersonal (eg, the ability to collaborate with experts in other subject areas, the ability to accept diversity and cross-cultural differences);
• system (eg, the ability to initiative and entrepreneurship, responsibility for the quality, the desire to succeed).
II. Subject-specialized (professional).
• in-process technology such as the development of methods and techniques of designing, debugging, production and operation;
• organizational and managerial (eg, the ability to organize work team, the ability to properly organize the workplace);
• research (eg, research and development of theoretical and experimental models of objects of professional activity - analysis of the dynamics and quality of objects using appropriate methods and tools for research, the creation of theoretical models that can predict the properties and behavior of the states of study object);
• design (eg systems analysis facility design domain and the relationships between its elements, the development and analysis of generalized solutions to the problem, predicting possible outcomes of the compromise in the face of uncertainty, the planning of the project);
• economic (eg, engineering design, followed by an analysis of the economic consequences).
For each training program most appropriate, in our view, the introduction of competence approach is a modular system of training. However, the rapid obsolescence of technical knowledge, due to technological progress requires constant updating course content maintenance college courses, and in this sense, modernization of training engineers to be the case always. Existing methods of training have drawbacks, the most significant of which is the subjectivity in the selection of educational material without adaptation curriculum, technology in the formation of general and professional competencies. The aim is to propose and substantiate the effectiveness of an information content approach to the logic modules based on the total training time constraints and the influence of parameters on the formation of classes competencies. Implementation of training technical subjects using a modular system based on logic, the completed modules can move from assessment "ready knowledge" students to form their competence, the presence of a specialist is a basic requirement of modern labor market. The main problem with this scheme is learning is a learning module content to the level of competence formation as a result of the module was maximized. The solution to this problem is possible with the use of information technology for determining the specific parameters of each training session. The work proposed and proved the effectiveness of the information content approach to the logic modules based on the total training time constraints and the influence of parameters on the formation of classes competencies.Remains a problem of logic design interconnection modules together, the quality of their semantic content, the ideal of controls allowing for the field of study and individual academic groups.

Summary of "Information systems and networks" Bulletin / Вісник Національного університету "Львівська політехніка". – 2013. – № 770 : Інформаційні системи та мережі. – Бібліографія: 22 назви.