One of the most effective ways of social adaptation of persons with special needs is inclusive education. That is why, an urgent task is to solve scientific and applied problem of inclusive education support based on modern information technology. For this purpose, it is necessary to develop an appropriate mathematical and software technology support of inclusive education.
Ukraine has fifteen years of experience in the implementation of inclusion. Abroad, there are information technologies that simplify the work of teachers and parents of children with special needs: software allows forming individual learning goals and accompanying knowledge assessment of students with special educational needs; there are centers of computer support for people with such needs and others. However, theoretical and practical achievements, and so information technology and application software, developed abroad, cannot be automatically transferred into Ukrainian education system.
Domestic researchers of education process of persons with special needs offered conceptual components of implementation of inclusive education in our country, have used the organizational and methodological approaches to the implementation of inclusive education, the foundations of inclusive education teaching in Ukraine are developed. The development of information technology contributes to the dynamic expansion of the set of information technology tools of support of education process for persons with special needs in Ukraine, including establishment of an independent online service of electronic gradebook, the computer technology of educational information resources access is developed, information on the site of psychological, medical and pedagogical commissions is available etc. However, such support of educational process with modern information technologies is uneven, there is no comprehensive system approach in the management of educational environment aimed at supporting people with special needs.
Research of inclusive education process has allowed us to identify structural elements and identify four main functional stages of a process. During the first phase of inclusive education, data of comprehensive study of personality by different specialists is accumulated, and also information from parents and others is gained. In case of deviations from the norms of mental and physical development, the second phase of inclusive education is to define learning objectives of the person depending on its individual characteristics. The purpose of training persons with special needs, which is formed during the third stage of inclusive education, combines form and content of the learning with correctional rehabilitation component. The fourth stage of inclusive education is in evaluation of results of individual education plan implementation, formed at the previous stage. The implementation of each stage of education is in the sequential execution of certain educational aims. In addition to presenting the order of elements of educational tasks set, an important requirement is to take into account specific conditions of such tasks. To account such requirements, it is advisable to use formal grammars. This formalism allows expressing some categories from another taking into account other additional conditions.
Because education for person with special needs consists of several functional stages, and each of them need to take into account the significant number of components, it is advisable to set the corresponding elements of grammar in stages. Elements of formal grammar – sets of terminals, nonterminals, productions and alphabet – are formed during the description of each stage of education for person with special needs. In fact, to the set of nonterminal symbols will belong transformations in educational processes, and the set of terminal symbols will be permanent factors, the results of educational transformations. The set of productions will be set formally as dependencies, which are sequentially formed in the course of education for person with special needs.
Information and technology support of education for person with special needs must be submitted in such a way as to make possible a systematic coverage of all stages of education. Formal grammar, obtained after completing its components, is one of the ways of representation of a formal model of inclusive education.
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