Usually, in chemical industry the energy of ultrasound is being used to intensify technological processes. However, the complexity of the mechanism of ultrasound action makes it difficult to create a single common theory that could explain its influence on the chemical reactions. Therefore, in each particular case wide-ranging studies of the influence of ultrasound on the chemical reaction, as well as on the structure and properties of the synthesized substances and materials are required.
The different methods of water purification from bacteria of the genus Bacillus are observed. The comparative characteristics of these methods is made. Розглянуто різні методи очищення води від бактерій роду Bacillus. Зроблена порівняльна характеристика цих методів.
The influence of ultrasonic cavitation on disinfestation from bacterial genus Diplococcus in the atmosphere of nitrogen and air has been investigated. Based on experimental data suggested the joint usage of ultrasound with nitrogen flushing is the most effective agent for purification of water.
The dynamics of the change of microbial amounts in water medium in sonication time was determined. Gases bubbling of different nature into the reaction medium for water disinfection from bacteria under cavitation conditions is proposed in the article. The rate constants of destruction of Bacillus cereus bacteria type in the gas atmosphere are expected. It was determined that the processes microorganisms’ destruction at bubbling of all investigated gases are described by the kinetic equations of the first order.
The aim of this work is to study the process of water purification from mechanical and chemical pollution and pathogenic microflora by adsorption and ultrasonic methods. Proposed technology reduces bacterial contamination and purifies water from organic pollutants, improving its quality.
Physico-chemical properties of specially modified forms of natural biopolymers – carboxymethyl cellulose and xanthan gum – were studied. The effectiveness and ability to film formation of water soluble polymeric compositions of these biopolymers, their influence on the growth and productivity of agricultural crops were examined. The effect of the biopolymers, mineral fertilizers and micronutrients content in the solution on its viscosity, as well as the dependence of the formed films thickness on the content of modified biopolymers and fertilizers were investigated.
It has been shown that two types of nanofiller aggregation processes are realized during polymer/carbon nanotubes nanocomposites production: formation of nanotubes ropes and their bending. The first one from the indicated processes is realized at carbon nanotubes contents larger than the percolation threshold. The ultrasound affects only carbon nanotubes aggregation of the second type.
The effect of ultrasonic cavitation on the vital activity of microorganisms in lactowhey has been investigated. The influence of different gases on the process proceeding and oxygen role in the oxidation of whey organic components under the influence of ultrasound has been determined. The destruction of protein macromolecules takes place in whey chemical structure after ultrasonic treatment. The destruction has been investigated and branched amino and carboxyl groups in whey peptides have been observed.
The ultrasonic treatment of Fe2-Bi-Mo2-Ox catalyst of ethylbenzene oxidative dehydration to styrene has been studied. Its physico-chemical properties have been compared with those of non-activated catalyst before and after operation. It has been shown that the catalyst prepared from salts solution activated by ultrasound has better activity and increases styrene yield under the same conditions.
Decomposition of starch grains in water dispersion and destruction of starch macromolecules in water solutions at acoustic cavitation has been investigated. Kinetics of this process is described by the first order process. Based on experimental data the rate constants have been found. Mathematical model based on found equations and experimental rate constants allows describing the kinetics of starch grains and starch macromolecules destruction in water as well as the change of relative viscosity of starch solution under ultrasonic treatment.