The mechanism of water sonolysis with the formation of both intermediates (free radicals) and basic products (hydrogen and oxygen), which are important for thermal power engineering and water purification technologies, based on the use of advanced oxidation processes, wasresearched. The efficiency of hydroxyl radical generation in the environment of inert gases and oxygen was analyzed.
Methanol synthesis was achieved by a free-radical mechanism of the compounding reaction of methane and hydroxyl radical. Experiments were performed by feeding methane and hydrogen-peroxide into a cavitation field. The major reaction products were methanol and water molecules. The calculated degree of methane conversion equals to ~10 %.
Integration of physical and physical-chemical processes is a principle that is inextricably linked with the development of modern technologies. Trends in the integration of technological processes are also characteristic for branches of water treatment and preparation. The combination of processes makes it possible to significantly increase the degree of sewage treatment, reduce the duration and energy intensity of the purification process, the costs to maintain optimal reagent, temperature, hydrodynamic regimes, etc.
Liquid waste and wastewater, that contain hypochlorites, are formed during the production of chlorine and caustic soda; electrolytic production of magnesium and chlorine; in the production of pulp and paper products etc. Such wastewaters belongs to sub-standard, therefore they are not reused in corresponding technological processes. In accordance with the current normative documents, hypochlorite wastewaters must be disposed of at the local treatment facilities of the enterprises where they are produced.
Oil-fat industry produces and recycles vegetable fats and related products. Sewage of this industry contain a large number of pollutants different nature. But, the main contaminating components of this sewage are organic compounds, mainly fatty character. Existing methods of water purification are not capable of providing sufficient degree of wastewater treatment, which would comply established sanitary norms. It’s creates a big problem, because it’s cause pollution of surface waters with organic compounds. Solving this problem is possible when switching to closed water systems.
The article is devoted to computer modeling of the process of cavitation in liquid
mediums. The experimental researches of the regularities of the cavitation process was
conducted, dependences of changes in the parameters of the process efficiency on the
concentration of the solution and the frequency of vibration are shown. A solid– state model of
a laboratory vibration resonance electromagnetic cavitator in SolidWorks 2016 Educational
Edition software system was created. Based on the modeling of the cavitation process, the main
The integral components of wastewaters from chemical and petrochemical enterprises are monocyclic aromatics (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, phenol and their derivatives). The toxic effect of these compounds turns out in violations of the activity of the human endocrine and central nervous system, the change in the species and trophic structure of biocenoses.
It has been studied an effect of ratio between arene and alkene organic compounds, as components of olefin production wastewaters, and sodium hypochlorite, as liquid waste of caustic soda and chlorine synthesis, on their interaction. The organics total content was expressed by a value of chemical oxygen demand. A fundamental possibility of the mutual neutralization was confirmed. Use of a cavitation field significantly reduces duration of the process and the ratio between sodium hypochlorite and organic compounds.
The influence of ultrasonic cavitation on disinfestation from bacterial genus Diplococcus in the atmosphere of nitrogen and air has been investigated. Based on experimental data suggested the joint usage of ultrasound with nitrogen flushing is the most effective agent for purification of water.
On the basis of the results of research of processes of wastewater from organic compounds in cavitation fields offered the concept of cavitation-flotation wastewater treatment. It implemented the main modern conceptions of the synthesis of chemical-technological systems.
На підставі результатів дослідження процесів очищення стічних вод від органічних сполук у кавітаційних полях запропоновано концепцію кавітаційно-флотаційного очищення стоків. У ній реалізовано головні сучасні концепції синтезу хіміко-технологічних систем.