Modified clays were intercalated with benzethonium chloride and benzalkonium chloride by exchanging the sodium ions. The organoclays obtained were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD); thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and low field nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), through proton spin-lattice relaxation time measurements (T1H). From the characterization data, the formation of organically modified clays was confirmed. These products can probably be used to prepare PVC nanocomposites with superior processing characteristics due to better chemical structure of clay surfactants.
Porous spherical materials can be obtained by suspensions polymerization using a solvent pair. In this work porous resins based on methyl methacrylate and divinylbenzene were synthesized and characterized in terms of apparent density, specific area, pore volume, morphology, and swelling percentage. The results show that the diluents system (toluene/heptane or methylethylketone/cyclohexane) affect significantly the polymer properties. Furthermore, differences in the solubility parameters of the monomers and diluents affect the morphological structure of beads.
The thermochemical fuel properties of melon seed husk (MSH) were characterized to examine its solid biofuel (SBF) potential for future bioenergy utilization. MSH is a cheap, abundant and renewable source of lignocellulosic waste generated from the extraction of vegetable oil from melon seeds. Thermochemical characterization was examined by proximate, ultimate, and thermogravimetric (TG-DTG) analyses, as well as Fourier transform infra-red (FT-IR) spectroscopy.