The article clarifies meaning of downtown in the process of forming the historical towns of Ukraine is underestimated. As a result of analysis of the existing settlement structure and the preservation of historical development, it has been determined that the towns need to preserve cultural identity, architectural heritage, local values, traditions and identity of the historic city. Urban building value in the meanwhile is determined by the planning scheme, the importance of the area for the city, the picturesqueity that is revealed in the general panorama of the city.
Subjects of activity of specialities “museology” and “cultural heritage” are analysed. The common and distinctive components of subjects of activity of these branches are revealed and two synonymous formulations of the generalised subject of activity for a speciality “museology and cultural heritage” is proved. Arguments concerning an incorrectness of generalisation of concepts “a museum subject” and “object of a cultural heritage” with terms “cultural property” or “cultural heritage” are presented. The content of concept “Museum object” is proved also.
Authenticity is one of the fundamental elements of cultural heritage, showing or designed to show that cultural heritage is undoubtedly authentic, that it can represent the “true” past, embody “reliable” facts, etc. In the European concept of cultural heritage protection, two opposing paradigms of authenticity are presented: historical matter and historical image.
A research is an analysis of legal regulation effectiveness for the issues of garden and park art sites by the nature protection laws in comparison with the national and international monuments protection norms.
Scanning electron microscopy was used to study the reactivity of iron-gall inks with varying iron concentrations. Vegetable extracts with hydrolysable tannins produced stable ink, while the presence of crystal aggregates explained the low reactivity of condensed tannins. This novel archaeometric approach has proved useful in chemical corrosion studies of ancient documents.