reduction

Low-Pressure Discharge Plasma Treatment of Aqueous Solutions with Mn, Cr and Fe

The effect of low-pressure glow discharge on the formation of peroxide and the degree of oxidation of Mn, Cr and Fe was studied in the aqueous solutions of different compounds. The plasma treatment causes the reduction of Mn(VII) through Mn(IV) to Mn(II), Cr(VI) to Cr(III) and oxidation of Fe(II) to Fe(III). Among other reactive species, peroxide formed under the action of plasma treatment takes an active part in redox reactions. The concentration of peroxide usually increases with treatment time, but its presence is detected only after completion of active redox processes.

Reduction of the gravity vertical gradients to a spherical surface

The GOCE mission has produced gravity gradient data during 2009–2013 years. Various data sets were obtained, such as: tensor of second derivatives in different systems, satellite orbit parameters, the models of the gravitational field of the Earth. In contrast to the direct approach, space-wise-approach, and time-wise approach the construction of the spherical grid of gradients were orthogonality relationships are carry out, was developed via upward/downward continuation to sphere. This paper considers the vertical gravity gradients zz V (EGG TRF2 [Gruber Th., 2010]) in particular.