Recently, much attention has been paid to the development and application of various types of crutches, in particular screw-type [1, 3], whose application is more expedient, since their vertical movements are much smaller than those of ordinary ones. There are only questions about their shape, thread sizes and ways of screwing into the ground.
Aims. The investigations of the transmission of elevations over water surfaces remain topical, so the first aim is to develop the technique of increasing the accuracy of the trigonometric instead of geometrical one. The second aim is to investigate the methods of trigonometric which can be used for the transmission of elevations over water surfaces with the use of modern devices. Methodology. Simultaneous and non-simultaneous reciprocal observations over different water surfaces have been carried out.
The results of the comparing experimental research of the geometrical leveling from “inside” and “forward-back” leveling methods show that these methods give the possibility to control the position of sighting line during the process of leveling and simplify the choice of leveling shoulder. The experiment shows that the results of “forward-back” leveling method are as accurate as the results of leveling from “inside”.
Analyzed method мotorized precision geometric leveling, its performance and prospects of Ukraine
Proposed level – Refractometer bases on the method of observation of the reference image in the sheer scale of the established flat reflectors, which allows you to directly identify and take into account corrections for refraction results in geometric leveling. A laboratory sample mirror reflector with setting the reflection plane in aplomb.
The psychophysiological condition of observers is investigated at carrying out of geometrical leveling. It is established, that the factor of entropy of each observer gives the representative characteristic of its condition at carrying out of measurements. The equations of regress worked out for everyone observer allow to calculate regular errors at leveling carrying out, and corrected by these amendments measured excess raise accuracy of leveling.
Purpose. Development of efficient, economic and reliable method of trigonometric leveling that would allow replace the geometric leveling without loss of precision, especially during works in mountainous areas remains actual. Methodology.