The article is devoted to the scientific worldview as philosophical and linguistic categories, the study of types, functions and main characteristics. Three basic types of the worldview are identified according to the levels of systematization: 1) general scientific as generalization of the concept of the Universe, nature, society and human being, which is formed on the basis of synthesis of knowledge from different scientific disciplines, 2) scientific and social as the understanding of the society and nature, which summarizes the achievements of the social humanitarian and natural sciences, 3) narrow scientific field – the representation and the subjects of certain sciences.
According to the object of cognition four types are selected: natural science, technical science, social sciences and humanitarian and scientific worldviews. The main characteristics of the scientific worldview are systemic, as the scientific worldview of the world is the result of knowledge consistency and their organization into the system, flexibility, due to the constant development of science and universality, as scientific knowledge is objective and free from the language of subjectivism. One of the functions of the scientific world view is that it connects and systemizes knowledge of various scientific sectors, and also acts as a research program that determines the strategy of scientific knowledge and provides the objectivation of scientific knowledge. In addition, in the research process the scientific worldview performs ontological, heuristic and ideological functions that are related and systematically organized. Normative and psychological functions of the worldview create the theoretical background of the study and coordinate the guidance of scientific search. The above mentioned functions are not separate; they are interconnected in the process of scientific research. In addition to these, the scientific worldview performs the function of the communicator - the "translator" from the language of scientific theory, known to a narrow circle of specialists, into the language of everyday perception.
National particularity of the scientific language is shown in terms of language incarnations of certain scientific concepts. The language of science should have a national composition in that language society, where there are some scientific traditions. This gives some grounds to speak about national scientific worldview, which is a scientific worldview in the form of the national language.
The aim of the study is to identify national peculiarities of special scientific view of the world of politics, which is reflected in the terms. Terms of political science, which are used in different societies, have different features and a specific form of expression in the language of scientists who are native speakers of one or another linguoculture.
Peculiarities of national narrow scientific field worldview of politics are presented in the context of comparison with another national narrow scientific field worldview. The comparative study of values of the same terms in political science in two languages (English and Ukrainian) is performed by: 1) the number of meanings, 2) the volume of meanings, 3) the structure of meanings 4) the presence / absence of estimating and expressive component.
The semantic analysis of the structure of political science terms such as “autocracy”, “democracy”, “populism”, “demagogue” shows that the units of the same form differ in number of meanings, in a set of nuclear and differential semata, volume meanings, and in some cases, in presence / absence of an estimating expressive component.
The notions of the terms in the English and Ukrainian languages are similar in their nuclear and some differential semata, but they have different differential semata (autocracy, democracy) or differ in both nuclear and differential semata, and at the same time have estimating and expressive components of meanings in one of the languages (populism). In some cases estimating and expressive component is present in the meaning of the terms , but it differs in the degree of its performance (demagogue).
Presentation of the Gnostic images of narrow scientific field of worldview of the political science allows to distinguish its national specificity in English and in Ukrainian mental space. The ideas of the state and political structure and the relations between authorities and people in a society have an expressive national character. This confirms the thesis that the national scientific worldview is directly related to the mentality of the nation, national character, to the peculiarities of the social and political structure of the country in case of narrow scientific field worldview of the world of politics. As the author of the national scientific map of the world is a man with his culture, values, language scientific concepts receive the form of expression by means of a national language and are filled with new content, typical of this ethnic and linguistic and cultural community.
The content of the scientific concept changes and adapts while being verbalized in scientific concept by means of the national language being influenced by other, extra linguistic factors, due to the peculiarities of the mental space of a certain society.