The issue of the medical terminology as a part of the Ukrainian lexis is rather wide. Formation and usage of medical terms were and are still actual now, because most of them are borrowed, usually come from the Latin and Greek languages.
At the end of the 20th and at the beginning of the 21st centuries borrowed components in the Ukrainian linguistics were studied by V. V. Akulenko, E. A Karpilovska, N. F. Klimenko, N. S.Kobzar, I. M. Kochan, O. A.Styshov, O. D.Ponomariv and others. The Ukrainian medical terminology was described in details by Y. O. Brazhuk, O. M. Victorina, N. O. Hymer, G. V. Dydyk-Meush, M. B.Dmitruk, G. O. Zolotukhin, I. M. Ivanenko, V. V. Kalko, T. V. Lepekha, N. P. Litvinenko, T. O. Lukovenko, N. P. Misnyk, L. O. Pyrig, D. Y. Syzonov, L. O. Symonenko, O. S. Stryzhakovska, T. G. Faychuk, N. Z. Cisar and others.
The basis for professional language of a medical worker is a use of professional terms of a high level of standardization. Thus, analysing vocabulary of professional speech of a medical worker, it was determined that the greatest part of it is terminological lexis, and Ukrainian components have not been discovered yet by scientists. Medical lexis is one of the oldest term systems. It was formed both on the world and own language basis. Development and improvement of medical terminology can be traced throughout scientific papers, professional textbooks, and medical dictionaries.
The aim of the article is to compare Ukrainian medical terms with international components psych(o)- according to semantic groups and paradigmatic relations; to identify their word formation mobility in the modern Ukrainian literary language. The object of research – medical terms with somatic components. The subject of research – their lexical and semantic features, peculiarities of terms with borrowed and national components. The material was taken from: “Dorlan’d Illustrated Medical Dictionary” (2007), “Ukrainian-Latin-English Explanatory Dictionary” edited by M. Pavlovskyj, L. Petruh, I. Holovko (1995), “Explanatory Dictionary of Medical Terms” edited by N. Lytvynenko, N. Misnyk(2010), “New Dictionary of Foreign Words” edited by L. Shevchenko, O. Niky, O. Khomyak, A. Demyanyuk (2008) and “Dictionary of Borrowed Words” by P. Shtep (1977).
Words of the somatic components psych(o)- indicate: processes; feelings, names of diseases; belonging to the head or psychics; their diseases or effect on them, people by profession, people; names of science, divisions, branches, researches; names of devices, agents; cells, classes.
The terms studied correspond to these features because they are relevant to the concepts they indicate; also they are included into medical terminology, have clear definitions in the dictionary, they are stylistically neutral, but some of them do not meet monosemy (polysemy of such lexical terms is given) and synonymy (synonyms are given both for words of foreign origin and their Ukrainian equivalents). This can be explained by the fact that these requirements are rather desirable than real. Polysemy shows the development of word-term, but over time one of the definitions can get a new nomination.
Components psych(o)- cannot be combined directly with Ukrainian word stems and roots. Most components are the ones of foreign origin with particular lexical meaning, which is preserved wholly or partly in the derivative words.
From the end of the 20th century till now the intensive studying of the medical terminology has been observed because it is one of the biggest terminological systems. Medicine does not stay still, new methods of diagnosing diseases; alternative methods of treatment appear, so a need in formation of new terms arises as well as the unification of their grammatical structure does. Medical terminology is a common deal for both medical workers and linguists. Let’s work on creating a generalized medical nomenclature.