The influence of the vehicle’s suspension malfunction on its operational efficiency

2018;
: 94-105
Received: November 10, 2018
Revised: December 24, 2018
Accepted: December 26, 2018
1
Lviv Polytechnic National University
2
Lviv Polytechnic National University
3
Lviv Polytechnic National University
4
Lviv Polytechnic National University

The main malfunctions that arise when operating a vehicle in Ukraine are the failure of the suspension elements and vehicle tires due to the poor condition of the most roads [11]. The car suspension elements soften the dynamic loads and smooth out the oscillations from the unevenness on the road while riding and provide a good stability and smoothness of the car ride. The car suspension affects not only the handling, stability, stability of the car motion, but also provides comfort and safety of the car, especially, when car is driven on uneven surface of the road and in sharp manoeuvres of the movement. The suspension of the car is a connecting linkage between the wheels and the body of the vehicle through which the forces of the shocks from wheel act on the vehicle body while riding over bumps on the road. Also, especially the front suspension of the car smooths the oscillations from the uneven road and provides the smooth ride. The smoothness of the ride depends on the elasticity of the suspension and car tires, work of shock absorbers and distribution of the vehicle mass. Besides, the smoothness of the ride on the uneven road has the influence on the comfort of the driver and passengers, the average speed of movement (as a consequence it causes the changes in fuel consumption, productivity and cost of transportation), the cargos safety, the reliability of the car.

The car suspension is one of the least reliable and durable elements of the car. The work of the faulty suspension reduces the durability of the car in 1.5 times and worsens its steering, thereby reducing its safety [11]. Ultimately, the motion of a car with a faulty suspension can cause an emergency on the road due to possible unpredictable suspension behavior.

The analyzing of the typical malfunctions of the car suspension components and its influence on smoothness and safety of motion is provided in the article. The methods of experimental research of the influence of the typical suspension malfunctions on the parameters of the car motion have been developed. The choice of research tools and the mounting place of the sensors on a car suspension is substantiated. On the basis of the experimental research results, the analysis of the influence of the suspension malfunction on the car's condition was performed according to the voltage changing of the sensor-analyzer, and the voltage change was transformed into the linear displacement of the suspension elements.

With the use of the MATLAB program in Simulink mode the simulation of the car ride over the typical obstacles with the use of a two-mass structure for sprung and unsprung masses was carried out, the oscillations of the unsprung and sprung masses were obtained in relation to the road with given pressure in the tire and given speed when riding over various types of obstacles with the normal and faulty shock absorbers.

[1] K. B. Piatkov, A. P. Ihnatov, and S. N. Kosarev Avtomobili semeistva VAZ-2107. Rukovodstvo po tekhnicheskomu obsluzhyvaniiu i remontu. S rekomendatsyiamy zhurnala “Za rulom” [Cars of the VAZ-2107 family. Manual for maintenance and repair. With the recommendations of the magazine “Za rulom”]. Moscow, Russia: ZAO «KZhY» Publ., 2004. [in Russian].

[2] V. A. Damzen, M. A. Trefylov, “Metodika izmereniia staticheskoi zhestkosti avtomobilnykh shyn” [“Method of measuring the static stiffness of automobile tires”], in Proc. 4th Int. Conf. “Dinamika nauchnykh issledovanii - 2008” [“Dynamics of research - 2008”], Sofia, Bulgaria, 2008, pp. 68-70. [in Russian].

[3] S. S. Evtiukov, “Soprotivlenie amortizatora szhatiiu, kak faktor vlijanyia na energeticheskie zatraty avtomobilia pri preodolenii porogovoho prepiatstviia” [“Resistance of shock absorber to compression as a factor in influencing the energy costs of the car in overcoming the threshold obstacles”], Sovremennye problemy nauki i obrazovaniia [Modern problems of science and education], no. 3, pp. 65-71, 2014. [in Russian].

[4] R. Ya. Kachmar, A. V. Muzychuk, “Vplyv nespravnosti elementiv pidvisky lehkovoho avtomobilia na yoho ekspluatatsiinu efektyvnist” [“Influences of injuries of the passenger car suspension elements on its exploitation efficiency”], in Proc. 5th Int. Conf. “Teoriia ta praktyka ratsionalnoho proektuvannia, vyhotovlennia i ekspluatatsii mashynobudivnykh konstruktsii” [“Theory and practice of a rational design, manufacture and operation of engineering constructions”], Lviv, Ukraine, 2016, pp. 86-88. [in Ukrainian].

[5] O. S. Lanets, V. M. Hurskyi, O. V. Lanets, and Ya. V. Shpak, “Obhruntuvannia konstruktsii ta modeliuvannia roboty rezonansnoho dvomasovoho vibrostola z inertsiinym pryvodom” [“Justification of the design and simulation of the operation of a resonant two-mass vibration table with an inertia drive”], Visnyk Natsionalnoho universytetu “Lvivska politekhnika” [Bulletin of Lviv Polytechnic National University], no. 788, pp. 28-36, 2014. [in Ukrainian].

[6] Y. Raimpel, V. P. Agapova, Shassi avtomobilia [Car chassis]. Moscow, Russia: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1983. [in Russian].

[7] Y. Raimpel, V. P. Agapova, Shassi avtomobilia: Amortizatory, shyny i kolesa [Car chassis: Shock absorbers, tires and wheels]. Moscow, Russia: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1986. [in Russian].

[8] Y. Raishel, Shassi avtomobilia: elementy podveski [Car chassis: suspension elements]. Moscow, Russia: Mashinostroenie Publ., 1987. [in Russian].

[9] V. P. Savchuk, “Modelirovanie dvizhenija elementov podveski MacPherson na primere avtomobilei semeistva VAZ 2110” [“Modeling the movement of MacPherson suspension elements on the example of cars of the VAZ 2110 family”], Novi rishennia v suchasnykh tekhnolohiiakh [New solutions in modern technologies], vol. 70, pp. 27-34, 2013. [in Ukrainian].

[10] S. A. Sokolovskyi, “Avtomatyzovanyi rozrakhunok kharakterystyk pidvisky avtomobilia u seredovyshchi modeliuvannia SIMULINK” [“Automated calculation of suspension characteristics of the car in simulation environment SIMULINK”], Zbirnyk naukovykh prats Akademii vnutrishnikh viisk MVS Ukrainy [Collection of scientific works of the Academy of Internal Army of the Ministry of Internal Affairs of Ukraine], vol. 1, pp. 17-23, 2014. [in Ukrainian].

[11] Ye. Yu. Fornalchyk, R. Ya. Kachmar, I. V. Terletskyi, “Ekspluatatsiina nadiinist konstruktsii pidvisok lehkovykh avtotransportnykh zasobiv” [“Operational reliability of constructions of suspensions of motor vehicles”], Mashynoznavstvo [Mechanical Engineering], vol. 4, pp. 42-44, 2006. [in Ukrainian].

[12] A. D. Artiushenko, O. H. Suiarkov, “Doslidzhennia vplyvu kharakterystyk pidvisky avtomobilia maloho klasu na plavnist khodu ta yii modernizatsiia” [“Investigation of the influence of characteristics of the suspension of a small class car on the smooth running and its modernization”], Transportne mashynobuduvannia [Transport engineering], vol. 31 (1004), pp. 21-27, 2013. [in Ukrainian].

[13] V. M. Pavlenko, “Stan rozvytku metodiv diahnostuvannia pidvisky avtomobilia” [“Condition of development of methods of diagnostics of the car suspension”], Avtomobile- ta traktrorobuduvannia [Automobile and Tractor Engineering], vol. 64 (970), pp. 63-69, 2012. [in Ukrainian].

R. Kachmar, A. Muzychuk, O. Lanets, Y. Porokhovskyi, "The influence of the vehicle’s suspension malfunction on its operational efficiency", Ukrainian Journal of Mechanical Engineering and Materials Science, vol. 4, no. 2, pp. 94-105, 2018.