UNSUCCESSFUL TOWNS OF THE BAR SURROUNDINGS: YALTUSHKIV, MEZHYRIV, POROSIATKIV, MARIANIVKA, BAROK AND BERLYNTSI

2021;
: 94-102
Authors:
1
Lviv polytechnic national university, Department of Architecture and Conservation

Historical towns of Ukraine are the subject of numerous interdisciplinary studies. The focus is
mainly on those settlements that have preserved the planning composition or have significant
historical significance. Instead, towns that have lost opportunities for spatial development remain
unnoticed. The purpose of article is to determine the spatial parameters of downtown and individual
development anomalies of unsuccessful cities: Yaltushkiv, Mezhyriv, Porosyatkiv, Maryanivka,
Barok and Berlyntsi.
Urban factors with varying intensity stimulate the development of settlements. In each example,
this happens individually. The formation and long-term formation of the town had hereditary,
evolutionary and variable-pulsating properties. Given these characteristics, several cities located in
the vicinity of Bar and recorded on the map of Podolsk Voivodeship in 1670 attract attention. These
towns had a short period of development and did not differ in the history of the region. Instead, they
deserve to examine the peculiarities of formation and restoration historical memory.
On the map of Podolsk Voivodeship in 1670, Yaltushkiv is shown with a castle and fortified
downtown. The settlement was located on the road that connected Bar with Dunaivtsi. Analysis of the
current state of street network and relief allows to delineate boundaries of historic downtown. It had
two gates, the main street on which stood the Church of Holy Trinity and Church of Holy Spirit. The
market square had the shape of an elongated rectangle. The castle was located in the north-western
corner. Preserved regular street network shows that the downtown was built thoughtfully and
according to the developed plan. Most likely it happened in the middle of the 16-th century, but due
to repeated devastation of the 16 - 20 centuries, no significant buildings and temples have survived.
On the map of Podolia Voivodeship in 1670, Mezhyriv is marked as a densely built-up town
with a castle. Analysis of current state of the street network and relief helps to determine the
boundaries of the ancient fortified city center, the probable location of the gates and the castle
complex. On the map of Podolia voivodeship in 1670, Porosyatkiv is shown as a well-fortified town,
with bastions and ramparts, but without castle. Instead, the fortification, market and temple have
been lost today. The street network allows you to roughly delineate the area of the historic center. On
the map of Podolsk Voivodeship in 1670, Maryanivka is shown as a quadrangular fortified town with
a castle located near the eastern part of the downtown. An analysis of existing street network and
relief shows that the ancient Rynok Square was located near the church, town had ramparts and dry
ditches, two gates and a regular type of layout. The castle was rectangular in shape, with ramparts
and a moat, located near the road to Kopaygorod. On the map of Podolia Voivodeship in 1670,
Berlyntsi is mentioned as a fortified settlement with a castle located on the southern side of downtown.
On the map of Podolsk Voivodeship in 1670, Barok is shown as a fortified town with a castle located
on the north side of downtown.
The essence without the success of towns is concentrated in the reasons that determined their
decline. The quality of the potential development of settlement was influenced by natural factors -
geographical and topographic location, climate and geology. The analysis of natural properties in
each settlement showed that from the very beginning they had significant limitations in spatial
development. Consideration of economic factors, namely favorable conditions for the development of
handicrafts and trade, the availability of natural resources indicate that Yaltushkiv, Mezhyriv,
Porosyatkiv, Maryanivka, Barok and Berlyntsi were primarily focused on agriculture. The
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dominance of this vector of settlement activity has negatively affected their functional role in the
development of region. An overview of urban planning factor - the development of form and
composition of the town show that a clear plan for the creation of the downtown was in Mezhyriv,
Yaltushkiv, Berlyntsi, Barok and Maryanivka. Porosyatkiv was planned without prior planning.
According to the map of the Podolsk Voivodeship of 1670, the defensive structures of downtown
consisted of earthen ramparts, small bastions and wooden fences. On the map of Ricci Zanoni in
1767 it is recorded that Mezhyriv has good fortifications; Porosyatkiv with fortifications (probably
scalded); Yaltushkiv, Berlyntsi, Barok and Maryanivka - without fortifications. Thus, the spatial
dissolution of the downtown in these towns began in the middle of the XVIII century.
An analysis of the towns Yaltushkiv, Mezhyriv, Porosiatkiv, Maryanivka, Barok and Berlyntsi
revealed that from the beginning of their founding and during the two centuries of progress, they had
hereditary, evolutionary and variable-pulsating anomalies in development. Instead, this is no reason
to neglect their significance for the history of Ukrainian urban planning. On the contrary, these
settlements today need a special monument protection status.

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