The article deals with the features of architectural design of high-rise complexes of multifunctional objects in Asian countries, the climatic conditions of which coincide with the hot climate of the United Arab Emirates. An analysis was carried out of the most famous modern high-rise buildings, as well as those whose construction is still ongoing and conceptual, competitive projects of high-rise multifunctional complexes. Due to the generalization of the obtained results, the main tendencies of designing high-rise multifunctional complexes in the countries with hot climates are formulated. The tendency of regionalism and identity is considered in detail. The purpose of the paper is to analyze regionalism and identity as one of the main trends in the design of high-rise multifunctional complexes in countries with hot climates.
Today, the construction of high-rise multifunctional buildings around the world has become significant, due primarily to the rapid development of metropolises in most world powers, the desire to concentrate in one building a number of complementary functions, as well as the lack of free areas in dense urban development, especially in the central urban areas and their considerable value. These and other issues are relevant, including for the fast-growing metropolises of the United Arab Emirates. The design of high-rise complexes is influenced by many factors, one of which is the natural and climatic. OAU - a country with year round summer, but in the summer, the temperature marks up to 400C, even in the shade. Rainfall is almost unheard of in the country - only a few days a year bring very scant and fast-moving rainfall. Of course, the United Arab Emirates is largely the leader in the Asian region, including high-rise design and construction. However, for a more comprehensive study, existing experiences in neighbouring countries should be analyzed in order to formulate the main trends in the design of high-rise multifunctional complexes, to take into account the best design decisions, and to prevent project errors.
In the towers of Petronas, built without the use of steel, but exclusively from special elastic concrete, there is no central constructive core. The towers can resist even with the loss of three of the sixteen bearing concrete columns. Additional safety is provided by the air bridge, mounted on giant hinged piers, as the towers are swinging and the bridge cannot be rigidly secured. In addition, the indoor crossing in the form of a bridge provides fire safety of the building. The elevators in Petronas were made by two in each of the two mines: one stops only on the stairs, passing odd, the second, respectively, only on odd ones. Identity to ancient Malaysian culture and Islamic region religion, respect for local traditions reflected in the use of exclusively domestic building materials and a special project design of the building, in particular the plan of the high-rise multifunctional complex Petronas represents the eight finite stars with semicircular protrusions for stability. Architecture Taipei 101 combines postmodernism with both ancient and modern Chinese traditions. The number of floors in Taipei 101 contains a postal subtext - 101 - this is the international postal code of Taipei. The structure of the tower can be divided into eight sections, each of which consists of eight floors. In Chinese culture, the number 8 is associated with prosperity, prosperity and success. In digital technology, the number 8 is associated with the byte, usually taken as a unit of measurement of the amount of information. The repetitive volumetric-spatial segments of the tower resemble the architectural rhythms of the pagodas traditionally known in the region of Asia (the towers connecting the heavens and the earth, this technique is traced in the architecture of the Petronas towers), and also the vertical axis of the tower is interpreted as a stem of bamboo (a symbol of learning and growth ) Four discs located on each facade of the building symbolize local coins. The emblem located above the entrance to the tower - three golden coins in the ancient style with a hole in the centre - made in a shape reminiscent of Arabic numerals 1-0-1. Al Faisaliyah Centre, designed by Foster and Partners, built in 2000, is one of the highest skyscrapers in the city of Riyadh, Saudi Arabia, with an altitude of 267 meters and 44 floors. Al Faisal is the first skyscraper built in the kingdom, as well as one of its main attractions, which was named after King Faisal. The architectural volumetric-spatial form of a high-rise building is executed in the modern interpretation of the traditional Islamic architectural style.
Summarizing the analysis of the current world trends in the design of high-rise multifunctional complexes in countries with hot climates, it should be noted that the main among them is the tendency of regionalism and identity, which is connected with the desire to preserve its own history, culture and traditions of the region, is a reaction to the global process of globalization, blur between the cultural peculiarities, the originality of architecture and urban planning. As the analysis shows, today architects of the Asian region began to pay special attention to rethinking the rich and ancient architectural and urban heritage, which largely takes into account the natural and climatic features of the area, has its own environmental solutions to combat negative climate manifestations, creates a unique individual architectural flavour, which is identified with a specific region. Regionalism and identity in the architecture of high-rise multifunctional complexes in the Asian regions are expressed in the use of local building and decoration materials, traditional architectural forms and ornaments, use in planning and spatial solutions of symbolism, which is identified with a specific city or country.
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