Aim. Determination of the elements of external spatial orientation of the surveying systems at the moment of image acquisition is the fundamental task in photogrammetry. Principally, this problem is solving in two ways. The first way is direct positioning and measuring of directions of camera optical axis in the geodetic space with the help of GNSS/INS equipment. The second way is the analytical solution of the problem using a set of reference information (often such information is a set of ground control points whose geodetic positions are known with sufficient accuracy and which are reliably recognised on aerial images of the photogrammetric block). The authors consider the task of providing reference and control information using the second approach, which has a number of advantages in terms of reliability and accuracy of determining the unknown image exterior orientation parameters. It is proposed to obtain additional images of ground control points by the method of their auxiliary aerial photography using an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) on a larger scale compared to the scale of the images of the photogrammetric block. The aim of the presented work is the implementation of the method of creating reference points and experimental confirmation of its effectiveness for photogrammetric processing. Methods and results. For the entire realization of the potential of the analytical way to determine the elements of external orientation of images, it is necessary to have a certain number of ground control points (GCP) and to keep the defined scheme of their location on the photogrammetric block. As the main source of input data authors use UAV aerial images of the terrain, which are obtained separately from the block of aerial survey, and have a better geometric resolution and which clearly depict the control reference points. Application of such auxiliary images gives the possibility of automated transferring of the position of ground control point into images of the main photogrammetric block. In our interpretation, these images of ground control points and their surroundings on the ground are called "control reference images". The basis of the work is to develop a method for obtaining the auxiliary control reference images and transferring of position of GCP depicted on them into aerial or space images of terrain by means of computer stereo matching. To achieve this goal, we have developed a processing method for the creation of control reference images of aerial image or a series of auxiliary multi-scale aerial images obtained by a drone from different heights above the reference point. The operator identifies and measures the GCP once on the auxiliary aerial image of the highest resolution. Then there is an automatic stereo matching of the control reference image in the whole series of auxiliary images in succession with a decrease in the resolution and, ultimately, directly with the aerial images of photogrammetric block. On this stage there are no recognition/cursor targeting by the human operator, and therefore there are no discrepancies, errors or mistakes related to it. In addition, if to apply fairly large size of control reference images, the proposed method can be used on a low-texture terrain, and therefore deal in many cases without the physical marking of points measured by GNSS method. And this is a way to simplify and reduce the cost of photogrammetric technology. The action of the developed method has been verified experimentally to provide the control reference information of the block of archival aerial images of the low-texture terrain. The results of the experimental approbation of the proposed method give grounds to assert that the method makes it possible to perform geodetic reference of photogrammetric projects more efficiently due to the refusal of the physical marking of the area before aerial survey. The proposed method can also be used to obtain the information for checking the quality of photogrammetric survey for provision of check points. The authors argue that the use of additional equipment - UAV of semi-professional class to obtain control reference images is economically feasible. Scientific novelty and practical relevance. The results of approbation of the "control reference image" method with obtaining stereo pairs of aerial images with vertical placement of the base are presented for the first time. There was implemented the study of the properties of such stereo pairs of aerial images to obtain images of reference points. The effectiveness of including reference images in the main block of the digital aerial triangulation network created on UAV’s images is shown.
- 1. Dorozhynskyy, O. (2002). Analytical and digital photogrammetry: text edition. Lviv Polytechnic Publishing House (in Ukrainian).
2. Dorozhynskyy, O. (2015). Mathematical models of analytical and space photogrammetry: monograph. Lviv Polytechnic Publishing House (in Ukrainian).
3. Fedotkin, D. (2000). Mathematical and software support for the processes of spatial referencing of space images using electronic maps: abstract of PhD thesis. Ryazan (in Russian).
4. Gerke, M., & Przybilla, H.-J. (2016). Accuracy Analysis of Photogrammetric UAV Image Blocks: Influence of Onboard RTK-GNSS and Cross Flight Patterns. Photogrammetrie - Fernerkundung- Geoinformation (PFG), 2016 (1), 17-30. doi: https://doi.org/10.1127/pfg/2016/0284
5. Hamidi, M., & Samadzadegan, F. (2020). Precise 3D geo-location of UAV images using geo-referenced data. The International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, Volume XL-1/W5, 2015 International Conference on Sensors & Models in Remote Sensing & Photogrammetry, 23-25 Nov 2015, Kish Island, Iran. URL: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/287121489_PRECISE_3D_GEO-LOCATI..., I. (2000). Analytical aerial triangulation at known coordinates of the centers of projections of aerial photographs: abstract of PhD thesis. Lviv Polytechnic Publishing House (in Ukrainian).
6. Kolb, I. (2000). Analytical phototriangulation at known coordinates of the centers of projections of aerial photographs: author's ref. dis ... cand. tech. Sciences: Lviv, 19 p. (in Ukrainian).
7. Kolb, I. (2018). Supply of photogrammetric projects with reference information, obtained from large-scale aerial images. Geodesy, Cartography, and Aerial Photography, 2018. V. 87, P. 65-74. doi: https://doi.org/10.23939/istcgcap2018.01.065
8. Kolb, I. (2019) Methods of creation and practical application of mask -maps of high-level terrain objects at orthotransformation of digital aerial photographs. ISTCGCAP. V 89. 29-35 (in Ukrainian). https://doi.org/10.23939/istcgcap2019.01.029
9. Kotov, A. (2018). Information technology for constructing a surface relief with an estimate of the parameters of an imaging model based on a small number of observations (in Russian). URL:https://ssau.ru/files/resources/dis_protection/Kotov_A_P_Informacionnaya...
10. Method for identifying control points on space images of terrain during their transformation: patent. RU 2683626 C1. Date of publication: 29.03.2019 Bull.№ 10 (in Russian). URL: file:///D:/fl1/RU2683626C1%20(2).pdf
11. Peppa, M. V., Hall, J., Goodyear, J., & Mills, J. P. (2019). Photogrammetric assessment and comparison of DJI PHANTOM 4 PRO and PHANTOM 4 RTK small unmanned aircraft systems, Int. Arch. Photogramm. Remote Sens. Spatial Inf. Sci., XLII-2/W13, 503-509. doi: https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W13-503-2019, 2019.
12. Przybilla, H.-J., Gerke, M., Dikhoff, I. & Ghassoun, Y. (2019). Investigations on the geometric quality of cameras for UAV applications using the high precision UAV test field zollern colliery. ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. XLII-2/W13. 531-538. doi:10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W13-531-2019.
13. Selikhanovych, V. G. Geodesy: text edition, p. I I. Moscow: Nedra, 1981. 544 с.
14. Stöcker, C., Nex, F., Koeva, M., & Gerke, M. (2019). UAV-based cadastral mapping: an assessment of the impact of flight parameters and ground truth measurements on the absolute accuracy of derived orthoimages. ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences. XLII-2/W13. 613-617. doi:10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W13-613-2019.
15. Wiącek, P. & Pyka, K. (2019). The test field for UAV accuracy assessments. ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XLII-1/W2. 67-73. doi:10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-1-W2-67-2019.
16. Wim van Wegen. Which Photogrammetry Solutions Are Surveyors Waiting For? Retrieved from https://www.gim-international.com/content/article/which-photogrammetry-s...