Laser surface modification of materials

To develop any process of laser technology, you need to solve 3 problems: 1) What are the properties of the interaction of laser radiation with matter must be selected to achieve the goal (resonant – non-resonant, absorption-scattering, photo- or thermal absorption, heating, hardening, melting, softening, evaporation, decomposition, coagulation, etc.); 2) What type of laser source should be used to achieve this goal (wavelength, operation mode – continuous or pulse-frequency, power, pulse duration, transverse energy distribution in the beam, coherence

Synthesis and Characterization of Mixed Al,Cu-Pillared and Copper Doped Al-Pillared Bentonite

In this paper, mixed aluminum and copper pillared clays (Al,Cu-PILCs) with different percentage of Cu and copper impregnated aluminum pillared clay (Cu@Al-PILC) were prepared using a bentonite sample. The samples were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 adsorption-desorption and Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy. The results showed bentonite had a main reflection of montmorillonite that characterized by basal spacing, increased by pillaring.