angular measurements

About metric and angular dependencies of spatial straight line notches and their use in engineering and geodetic works

In applied geodesy tasks, it may be necessary to determine spatial angles. When bringing a 3D design of buildings and structures to the field with the help of an electronic total station (ES), it is important to verify the spatial angles between different elements of building structures such as roof overlaps, inclined anchors, and more, using the characteristic points' spatial coordinates. Modern geodetic instruments provide sufficiently high measurement accuracy (up to 1" and 1 mm, respectively).