The migration of highly concentrated pesticide solutions in the soil has been experimentally studied. A mathematical model of the diffusion process in the soil environment has been developed. Based on the mathematical model, a system of equations for calculating the duration and intensity of the process depending on environmental parameters was obtained. The dependence of the process velocity on the direction of the diffusion front is determined, and the diffusion coefficients, kinetic coefficients of the diffusion process and the diffusion front velocity were calculated.
In Ukraine, there is a problem of environmentally hazardous handling of used packaging of pesticides and other toxic chemicals and hazardous waste which can pose a serious threat to human health and the environment. The paper presents modern methods of disposal of pesticide packaging in the world and the situation in Ukraine. The Ukrainian and world environmental legislations regulating the problem of pesticide packaging management are analyzed. The scheme of processing and disposal of pesticide containers is proposed.
The purpose of the study is to determine the levels of hazardous pesticides used in Ukraine and the world and to identify the most dangerous of them.
The main agrochemical manufacturers of Ukraine are analyzed and a list of active pesticide substances is made. The ecotoxic method has been used and the list of the most environmentally hazardous pesticides for the environment and humans has been established. The mechanism of increasing environmental safety by using different pesticides on agricultural lands with acid and alkaline soils is proposed.
The paper is including information about classification and diagnostics of biodamages, raw materials, materials and products, biostability of materials evaluation methods and methods for material protection against biodamaging. The contributors are discussing the problems of biocides classification, application of antimicrobial materials, requirements to biocides and evaluation methods for antimicrobial properties of biocides