роботизований електронний тахеометр

Investigation of refraction field over water surfaces

Aim. To investigate the possibilities of applying non-simultaneous reciprocal trigonometrical levelling over water surfaces while partially taking into account vertical refraction. Methodology. Experimental investigations of vertical refraction over water surfaces during day time on a plain and hilly terrains in summer. Non-simultaneous reciprocal observations were made over different water surfaces with the use of an automated electronic tachymeter.

Approbation of application of non-simultaneous bilateral trigonometric leveling taking into account vertical refraction

Purpose. Development of efficient, economic and reliable method of trigonometric leveling that would allow replace the geometric leveling without loss of precision, especially during works in mountainous areas remains actual. Methodology.