Heavy metals enter the soil in the form of oxides and salts (both soluble and practically insoluble in water). There is an assumption that heavy metal oxides are fixed mainly in the solid phase of the soil, especially in a neutral or alkaline pH environment. It should be noted that their toxic effect depends entirely on such factors as the type of soil and the pH of the pore solution. The behavior of heavy metals in soils is significantly different from the behavior of most cations of macroelements.
The paper presents the application of the Multi-Criteria Evaluation of environmental damage under the conditions of limited available data. War actions often cause damage to industrial facilities, which in turn impacts the environment. At the same time, access to such sites and information about the development of specific events may be limited or fragmented. To support the decision-making process in such situations, the Multi-Criteria Evaluation offers structured and transparent utilization of the known quantitative and qualitative information.
The paper presents the analysis of soil and phytomass contamination due to the functioning of air transport. The major issues revealed include extremely high level of soil contamination with petroleum products and an increased content of heavy metals both in soil and phytomass. The toxicity testing has demonstrated considerable pathogenic potential of soil from the airport area.