Optimization of the mechanism welding mode in a shielding gases environment of shell structures in the position “on weight”

: 49-62
Received: September 02, 2022
Revised: September 14, 2022
Accepted: September 30, 2022
Lviv Polytechnic National University

Due to their simplified spatial shape, shell cylindrical designs have acceptable manufacturability. The latter makes it possible to use a variety of fusion welding methods in their manufacture, including the option of mechanized welding in protective gas environments. Such a technological process is considered to be sufficiently developed in terms of theory and application, as evidenced by specialized equipment for it and numerous recommendations for the selection of installation and running welding parameters. Analysis of such material demonstrates that the basic technology is welding in the lower position with a seam root lining or with the use of a suitable technological arrangement for rotating large structures to provide such conditions. Much more difficult to meet the quality requirements for a welded joint are repair and welding works of non-rotating structures with a one-sided approach to the welding zone and the absence of a seam root lining. In this case, welding equipment with electric or electric-mechanical control of the process of dropwise transfer of metal into the bath is used, regardless of the spatial position of the seam. However, in cases of single production or repair welding, classical welding sources are still widely used, in which the regulatory requirements for the weld are provided by its appropriate external characteristics, the effect of self-regulation of the arc and dynamic characteristics. Here, the variant of droplet transfer with a short circuit of the droplet to the bath is typical, with the characteristic instability of energy accumulation / return of the source choke at the stages of the arc and droplet and the corresponding behavior of the arc in different spatial positions. Since the parameters of the mode are interdependent and, thus, welding itself represents a poorly organized system that has a variety of physical parameters that cause different in nature, but tightly interconnected processes in the zone of weld formation. The best tool for assessing the condition and regulation of such a system today is planning an experiment with independent controlled (setting) parameters of the welding mode and quality feedback – the optimized amount of weld penetration. On the basis of the processing of the array of recommended data regarding the selection of the value of the setting parameters of the welding process by the procedure of constructing symmetric histograms and the distribution polygon and calculating the analytical model of the description of the distribution density for each setting parameter of the process, their average values are set with a probability of 0.9. The latter were used to calculate the actual values of the following parameters for welding a given material thickness – electrode wire diameter 1.6 mm, welding current 190 A, voltage 25±1 V, welding speed – 26–42 m/h, wire feed speed 21–29 m/h, electrode discharge wire 16 mm. On the basis of the specified reference base of parameter values, a planned experiment was set up and implemented to find the optimum on a matrix of a composite symmetrical three-level plan, as variable factors are set – process  voltage, welding wire feed speed and welding speed; the height of penetration of  the assembled parts is set by the response. The region of the optimum and the influence of the setting parameters of the mode on it, as well as the analysis of its response surfaces and cross sections of such surfaces demonstrate that the setting parameter – the source voltage should practically be constant at the level of 24 V and does not have a significant adjustment ability for the correction of the welding mode. The setting kinematic parameters of the mode are the wire feed speed and the welding speed, respectively 23 and 27 m/h, at the given arc voltage, they provide welding in one pass. In terms of the depth of the ability to adjust the quality of the seam formation, the welding speed prevails, since, all other things being equal, the wire feed speed is strictly correlated with the speed of its melting at a given diameter and electrode distance. The latter determine the actual value of the current, the value of which is limited by the source voltage, which is strictly specified and constant for the given process under study. 

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