In the recipes of modern cosmetic, sanitary and pharmaceutical preparations, there is a large number of accessory compounds, including surface-active substances. One of the main requirements for these compounds is the efficacy, availability, lack of allergenicity, low toxicity of decomposition products and the ability to biodegradate in natural conditions. For surfactants used in the biomedical industry and pharmacy, additional requirements are put forward - biocompatibility with body tissues, bio-inertness and non-toxicity of products of their metabolism. All the more widely used surfactants, which receive modification of compounds of natural origin - amino acids, oils and saccharides. Taking into account that we have developed an effective one-reactor method for the synthesis of ω-hydroxycarboxylic acids on the basis of cyclic ketones, we decided to consider the possibility of obtaining new surface-active substances on their basis. Creation of new type of surfactants of this type is actual today as derivatives of hydroxycarboxylic acids are widely used in cosmetics and in recipes of medical preparations.
We proposed to obtain derivatives of monosaccharides and higher ω-hydroxy acids by the primary hydroxyl group of acid. The saccharide fragment in such a compound will play the role of hydrophilic, and the remainder of the carboxylic acid - a hydrophobic block. In alkaline medium, such a compound will form carboxylate ion and turn into a "Gemini"-surfactant with different nature of hydrophilic groups (non-ionic and anionic). In addition, the presence in the molecule of the carboxyl group will allow it to construct other types of reactive surfactants on its basis.
As the previouses compounds, we have selected available α-D-glucopyranose and synthesized 8-hydroxyoctanoic acid.
The preferred direction of the interaction of ω-hydroxycarboxylic acids with α-D-glucopyranose in the presence of traces of hydrochloric acid is the formation of the ether with the participation of the glycoside group of saccharide and the OH hydroxy acid group.
The structure of the compound obtained was confirmed and characterized by physicochemical constants. An isotherm of surface tension on the border air - aqueous solution for the obtained surfactant, a critical concentration of micelle formation was calculated.
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